Complexation de triterpènes pentacycliques par des cyclodextrines : caractérisations physicochimiques et activités biologiques

Abstract : The lack of innovative therapies in human chemotherapy incites the scientific community to be interested in new sources of bioactive compounds. We can quote the secondary metabolites of plants, to which belong hydroxy pentacyclic triterpene acids (HPTAs) and more particularly Ursolic (UA), Oleanolic (OA) and Betulinic Acids(BA). These molecules are the subjetc of numerous studies which tend to demonstrate their properties: anti-infective, anticancer, antiproliferatives, anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotectrive. The main obstacle to their use in therapeutic purposes stays the insolubility of these AHPTs in the water. Thus the objective of this work was to increase their hydrosolubility. At first, in agreement with the recommendations and/or the existing standards, we demonstrated that the antibacterial spectra of UA and OA are limited to Gram-positive bacteria. No HPTA showed antifungal activity. Only the BA showed an interesting antiviral activity on human Cytomegalovirus (hCMV); no antiviral activity was on Poliovirus. Finally, the BA, but even more UA showed an anticancer activity against cellular model of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Secondly, we proceeded to the manufacturing and to the study of complexes between HPTAs and cyclodextrines. We retained gamma-cyclodextrine (gamma-CD), which presented the advantage to complex the 3 AHPTs with a constant of "average" to "raised". These HPTAs:gamma-CD complexes were characterized by using diverse techniques: chromatographic, thermal and spectrometric. We concluded in the obtaining of inclusion complexes which allowed increasing the solubility of the HPTAs. In a last part, we estimated the biological activities of the HPTAs:gamma-CD complexes. The results show that the UA:gamma-CD and OA:gamma-CD complexes remain active against Gram-positive bacteria (but with a weaker efficiency); whereas the BA:gamma-CD complex shows to be active on certain bacteria. The BA:gamma-CD complex, and in a surprising way the UA:gamma-CD complex presents an antiviral activity against the hCMV. Finally, the decrease of the cytotoxicity linked to the complexation of the HPTAs believes the interest of UA and of BA on CML cells
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Stéphane Fontanay. Complexation de triterpènes pentacycliques par des cyclodextrines : caractérisations physicochimiques et activités biologiques. Autre. Université de Lorraine, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012LORR0210⟩. ⟨tel-01749616⟩

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