Les invasions biologiques des milieux d'eau douce : analyse du rôle des traits biologiques et écologiques d'un nouvel envahisseur (Dikerogammarus villosus, Gammaridae, Crustacea) dans le processus invasif

Abstract : The Moselle River, owing to its geographic localization, is connected to the main European waterways, generating regular establishment of new exotic species. A recent invader (Dikerogammarus villosus, Amphipoda, Crustacea) was used as a model for our study. We defined and analysed its biological and ecological traits, and evidenced a pool of characteristics that could have enhanced D. villosus invasiveness. Such characteristics are also frequently presented in the literature as shared by invasive Gammaridae. In order to check this hypothesis, and to define whether those traits are common or specific to invaders, a comparison of bio/ecological traits of invasive and non-invasive gammarid species was performed, that revealed the importance of ecological traits, allowing a species to go through the first steps of the invasion process. Moreover, we have shown that invasive gammarids generallly originate from biogeographic areas where this group is highly diversified. Finallly, the study of macroinvertebrate communities in the Moselle River showed an increase of the functional diversity between 1994-2001, with nevertheless a trend to the homogenisation.
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Simon Devin. Les invasions biologiques des milieux d'eau douce : analyse du rôle des traits biologiques et écologiques d'un nouvel envahisseur (Dikerogammarus villosus, Gammaridae, Crustacea) dans le processus invasif. Sciences agricoles. Université Paul Verlaine - Metz, 2003. Français. ⟨NNT : 2003METZ024S⟩. ⟨tel-01749835⟩

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