Dynamique des écoulements dans les aquifères calcaires de bas plateaux: de l'identification à la quantification des types de circulation. Exemple des formations triasiques et jurassiques dans le nord-est de la France

Abstract : The spatial heterogeneity is a feature of limestone aquifers. Conditioned by the karst and its morphologies, this heterogeneity explains the frequent under-exploitation of these hydrosystem reserves but it also explains the incomplete degree of knowledge of their functionings. In this research we wanted to deepen this knowledge by scrutinizing the functioning of the limestone aquifers which arm the low plateaus of the North-East of France. Three of these low plateaus held our attention, those of Dogger and Oxfordian (Jurassic) and the one of Muschelkalk (Triassic). In order to understand how the flows on and into these three systems are organized, our approach focuses on two main axes ; the first one concerns the identification of the modes of flow and the second one is devoted to quantification. In practice, the knowledge of the flow modes was investigated through the study of various structural parameters (geology, tectonics, karst) and conjunctural parameters (precipitation, evapotranspiration) interacting the water cycle. We show that the variety of hydrological functionings which are observed, on the scale of the study area, is mainly dependent on the structural parameters ; the lithological heterogeneity, in particular, appears as a determining functional key, on the one hand, by the existence of a multiplicity of groundwater and on the other hand, by its role in the karstogenesis. The morphologies of the karst are primarily obvious on the areas of lithostratigraphic contact and we were able to establish, through a spatial distribution of karst phenomena (on and underground), that these three plateaus are mainly disconnected from the karst and run by slow-flow processes, from infiltration to ground water discharge. In order to provide some quantifications of the circulations, a hydroclimatic and geochemical analysis of small outlets was then conducted. Thus a dozen springs and catchments, located in various physiographic settings have been surveyed for several water years. The analysis allowed us to specify the hydrodynamic characteristics of two types of behavior observed in the low plateaus we studied: the fissural behavior and the karstic behavior. The fissural behavior appears, on an annual scale, through a significant rainfall filtering of the systems (high inertia of the values of discharges and electrical conductivities) and also by slow charging processes when flood events occur. The karst behavior, meanwhile, is evidenced on an annual scale, by a moderately rainy filtering of the systems but also by hydrogeochemical variations accused during major rainfall solicitations in connection with the important transmissivity of these environments
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Vincent Fister. Dynamique des écoulements dans les aquifères calcaires de bas plateaux: de l'identification à la quantification des types de circulation. Exemple des formations triasiques et jurassiques dans le nord-est de la France. Histoire. Université de Lorraine, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012LORR0405⟩. ⟨tel-01749892⟩

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