Étude de la composition de différentes fumées de cigarette associées aux tabagismes actif et passif

Abstract : Cigarette smoke is one of the more significant indoor contaminant. Cigarette smoke is associated with gas phase and particulate matter phase components. The cigarette smoke particles are of major concern from a toxicological viewpoint, for both active and passive smoking. Indeed a large part of them is retained by the different levels of human respiratory system. As a consequence, the molecules adsorbed on their surface or the molecules, which compose the particle itself, can be slowly released in the organism. In this context, particles involved in active and passive smoking were analyzed and compared. In a first step, a quantification method by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) for some tracers has been developed and validated to allow the validation of both the smoking and the sampling procedures to be achieved. This is important to be sure that for a given cigarette smoke types, the different samples obtained from different collection procedure are statistically identical. This also allowed the influence of some smoking variables (type and humidity of the cigarette, puff duration, and flow rate of the puff) on the composition of the particles to be evaluated. In a second step, mainstream cigarette smoke (MSS), sidestream cigarette smoke (SSS) and exhaled cigarette smoke (EXS) particles were analyzed by ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry coupled with laser desorption/ionisation (LDI-FTICRMS) or electrospray ion (ESI-FTICRMS). The comparison of MSS and EXS revealed the selective retention of the more polar molecules in the organism. In contrast to what it is obtained for MSS, it was found that the compounds detected in the analysis of SSS particles are highly unsaturated and content low amounts of oxygen and nitrogen atoms. This has to be linked to a lower dioxygen amounts and to a lower temperature between two puffs in the burning zone. Consequently, pyrolytic and combustion phenomena are the main process which induce the formation of SSS and MSS, respectively. Moreover, MSS cross unburned tobacco before to be collected and can induce distillation of some volatile compounds (e.g. nicotine) which are thought to be more saturated and more oxygenated that the compounds generated in the burning zone. These results were confirmed and completed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy analysis. The results of the MSS, SSS and EXS particle analysis highlight the differences of chemical composition of these different cigarette smokes which is associated to active smoking for the first one and passive smoking for the latter ones. Consequently, differences of toxicological effect can be expected for each kinds of smoking behavior
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Sébastien Schramm. Étude de la composition de différentes fumées de cigarette associées aux tabagismes actif et passif. Autre. Université de Lorraine, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012LORR0408⟩. ⟨tel-01750211⟩

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