Étude de marqueurs de différenciation testiculaire Sox9 et Amh lors d'un développement normal, d'une inversion sexuelle et d'un développement en absence de cellules germinales chez l'amphibien urodèle Pleurodeles waltl. Intérêt pour la physiologie comparée de la reproduction des vertébrés

Abstract : In the context of comparative physiology of reproduction, amphibians are poorly studied. This work was dedicated to the analysis of testis differentiation markers in the newt Pleurodeles waltl, which shows a ZZ/ZW genetic mode of sex determination that can be affected by temperature. First, we studied sox9, a testis differentiation marker well characterized in many higher vertebrates. The gene cloned in Pleurodeles shows a good level of identity with other vertebrates. The testis-enriched expression appears late during the testis differentiation process indicating that it is probably not involved in the early steps of testis differentiation. Its use as a marker of testicular differentiation proved difficult since it is expressed not only in the gonads but also in the mesonephros. Then, we studied amh, a testis hormone responsible for müllerian duct regression in many vertebrates. Its early expression in the gonad, significantly higher in male than in female larvae makes it an excellent marker for testis differentiation. Since in Pleurodeles waltl, Müllerian ducts persist in males, it suggests that during the course of evolution, the function of Amh on the regression of Müllerian ducts appeared secondarily after its role in gonadal differentiation. These markers have been used to characterize the gonadal phenotype during sex reversal, or in gonads developed in the absence of germ cells. They showed that these cells do not seem to play a role in gonadal differentiation of Pleurodeles waltl
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Imane Al-Asaad. Étude de marqueurs de différenciation testiculaire Sox9 et Amh lors d'un développement normal, d'une inversion sexuelle et d'un développement en absence de cellules germinales chez l'amphibien urodèle Pleurodeles waltl. Intérêt pour la physiologie comparée de la reproduction des vertébrés. Biochimie, Biologie Moléculaire. Université de Lorraine, 2013. Français. ⟨NNT : 2013LORR0229⟩. ⟨tel-01750523⟩

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