Sur la modélisation du tissu cardiaque comme un milieu à microdilatation : une investigation numérique

Abstract : Background: A soft biological tissue is subjected to numerous exchange phenomena and has an extremely complex structural organization. The knowledge of its mechanical behavior is required in many applications ranging from clinical diagnostic to tissue engineering. To achieve this goal, more or less satisfactory approaches are developed. They all seek to take into account in a more or less systematic manner the microstructure of the medium. Assuming that the biological tissue is a particular micromorphic medium (micropolar medium) leads to good results in the case bone tissue. It is therefore likely that the results of this kind will be obtained for other tissues. Our interest is on the heart tissue and the problem of ischemic heart attack. In this context, it seemed that the most appropriate behavior particularization is that of a microdilatation medium. Work done: The work presented in this thesis is essentially numerical. It aims to highlight the features of the response of microdilatation medium to an external mechanical load. This step is essential for the analysis of the experimental results to be conducted in the future. The work also aims to investigate the potentialities of the model with respect to the heart tissue regarding heart attack and the associated loss of the ability to eject sufficient blood volume. The numerical tools for the analysis of such media are in increasing development. We had to develop our own tool based on the LPI-BEM (Local Point Interpolation - Boundary Element Method). Because of the similarity of the associated field equations, the validity of the numerical strategy is assessed in the case of a piezoelectric material. This choice is not innocent because the piezoelectric medium with microdilatation will allow analyzing the case of an electrical solicitation of the tissue. The details of this original numerical approach are given in Chapter 2 of the thesis. Chapter 3 is devoted to the analysis of the robustness of the method and to the peculiarities of the response of a microdilatation medium. The fourth chapter is devoted to the application to the cardiac tissue. By limiting the study to the case of small strains, it is shown that the model is well suited to the representation of the behavior of cardiac tissue. Indeed, considering the left ventricle as a tubular structure, the left ventricle ejection fraction (clinical criterion of the heart failure) is greatly reduced in the presence of an infarcted area. The latter is modeled as a zone with diffuse boundary where the material points have lost their ability to "breath". These results are promising and encourage further investigations in this direction by taking into account the anisotropic nature of the tissue in a geometrically nonlinear context
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Nicolas Thurieau. Sur la modélisation du tissu cardiaque comme un milieu à microdilatation : une investigation numérique. Autre. Université de Lorraine, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014LORR0018⟩. ⟨tel-01750676⟩

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