Étude des potentialités chondrogéniques des cellules souches mésenchymateuses, caracterisation et suivi en IRM du biomatériau fonctionnalisé

Abstract : Cartilaginous lesions mainly occur from a traumatic background and do not heal spontaneously. The chirurgical treatment and the cellular engineering techniques, usually used in clinic, produce perfectible results. Cartilage tissue engineering is the subject of many works in order to produce a repair tissue into the lesion. This repair tissue aims to have the same structural an functional characteristics as the native cartilage. In orthopaedic field, the early diagnostic of chondral lesions and the evaluation of the repair tissue are major issues. MRI is a high resolution and non invasive imaging technique that could be used to evaluate the architectural and biochemical structures of the cartilage by using dedicated sequences. Because of their chondrogenic capacities, stem cells provide a promising avenue to regenerate damaged cartilage in articular traumas. The stem cells from various origins (bone marrow, synovium) and the dedifferentiated chondrocytes were seeded into a porous 3D scaffold in collagen I (collagen I sponge). These cells were cultivated in chondrogenic conditions to produce a functionalized implant. The quality of the matrix synthesis was evaluated in vitro and demonstrated the chondrogenic potential of these various cell types. Superparamagnetic iron oxid particle (SPIO) labelling of the mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) is feasible in vitro at 3 Teslas (3T) and 7 Teslas (7T). A SPIO concentration lower than 25 ?g Fe/mL could be used without reducing the cartilaginous matrix synthesis by bone marrow MSC. The functionalized biomaterial implantation in an ectopic site in a nude mouse model showed an osseous split. However, in articular site in a nude rat model, the implants produced a repair tissue filling the totality of the lesion. This tissue seems to have similar characteristics of the surrounding healthy cartilage
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Submitted on : Thursday, March 29, 2018 - 12:53:54 PM
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Émilie Roeder. Étude des potentialités chondrogéniques des cellules souches mésenchymateuses, caracterisation et suivi en IRM du biomatériau fonctionnalisé. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université de Lorraine, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014LORR0046⟩. ⟨tel-01750748⟩



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