Approche compréhensive de la perméation en nanofiltration organique par des membranes denses de type polyuréthane et polydiméthysiloxane : application au fractionnement de solutions diluées

Abstract : The synthesis of polymeric solvent stable materials was carried out on the basis of block copolymers polyurethane. A series of self-supported dense membranes allowed characterizing the different polymers and the selection of the most suitable ones to prepare composite membranes with a dense top layer. The properties of the membranes were adjusted by tailoring the starting reagents. Good resistance of the membranes in organic solvents was observed and the most important permeation flows were obtained with the softer materials. A rigid membrane was tested for the recovery of the Grubbs-HoveydaII catalyst from toluene. Despite a low swelling rate, the selectivity of the membrane was limited to 48%. This result is in contradiction with the common idea stating that high selectivity is due to rigid polymer network. A comprehensive approach of the transport mechanism in organic solvent nanofiltration (OSN) was conducted using polydiméthylsiloxane membranes (PDMS). The effect of pressure on the swelling was examined using two devices mimicking the pressure conditions in OSN. It has been shown that the pressure does not affect the upstream equilibrium sorption but induced a decrease of the swelling of the downstream interface of the membrane. The swelling gradient between the two sides of the membrane was proposed as driving force of solvents transport. The nanofiltration of solvents and solutes were then studied. The results showed that the solution–diffusion model was fully valid for pure solvents transport. The selectivity of the membrane was found to be independent of the membrane-solvent interaction but affected by the solute-membrane affinity and solute-solvent interaction
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Haïfa Ben Soltane. Approche compréhensive de la perméation en nanofiltration organique par des membranes denses de type polyuréthane et polydiméthysiloxane : application au fractionnement de solutions diluées. Alimentation et Nutrition. Université de Lorraine, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014LORR0056⟩. ⟨tel-01750764⟩

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