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Analyse d'impacts du lancement de procédés innovants: Application des théories multicritères pour une évaluation robuste

Abstract : This research belongs to the industrial engineering field, focusing on the first stages of the innovation process (Fuzzy Front-End). In a globalized world, where the technology is near to everyone, enterprises are looking for new technologies to be different from their competitors, offering new and better products / services as a strategy to keep or acquire new competitive advantages. Moreover, innovation is a large and continuous process, where different management models are used. But, because of the complexity of the process, no general model is suitable for situations and projects. Thus, the innovation process involves different stakeholders from the company and its environment. These individuals come from different origins (field of knowledge), have different needs, abilities, importance and work under different restrictions (technological or financial resources, work rules, etc.). Consequently, it is essential for the enterprise to identify all the needs of the parts involved in the products. And, a model is required in order to identify the stakeholder’s needs before starting design tasks. This model aims at more robustness in the new product development process and at the reduction of the failure rate when launching new products. Thus, the objective of this PhD thesis is to propose a new method to analyze the impact of the innovation, allowing companies to identify the dynamic actors' needs, to improve the definition of their new products and to adapt to the possible changes of the market. This tool is part of an innovative projects management methodology, used before the elaboration of the functional specifications of a new product. This locates the research in the first stages of development called Fuzzy Front-End: before the genesis of the product. Fuzzy front ends integrate among others the opportunity / needs identification for innovation to the development of the new product decision taking. The proposed approach for the innovation impact analysis (A.I) consists of two stages: the first one intends to model an innovation ecosystem, integrating the relations, the importance of each stakeholder and their individual necessities in regard to the new product. Through a Dynamic Needs Analysis (A.B.D) it will be possible to get the global needs, which represent the whole system, without considering the disturbances of the environment or the impact of the same innovation. Thus, the second stage of the model, through the generation of innovation impact scenarios (S.I.I), evaluates the impact of the innovation the new product may face at its market launching. Due to a new product emergence changes emerge: actors’ performance, their interrelations, the importance and their own needs about the product. These modifications (impacts) must be studied in order to reduce the risk in the new product launching. On the other hand, as there is no definition about the innovation impacts (In), a bibliographic study has been done about the concept of impact. Exploring different definitions about what impact is, and according to different disciplines (engineering, ecology, psychology, etc.), a new definition has been obtained and adapted to the context of innovation. This review has been also useful to define the possible types of impact and justify the different methodologies based in the observation of the actor's activities to understand and identify needs. Thus, the different actors' needs were identified, based on the Resources - Activities - Result (RAR) approach and then classified under the Kano Model and its improvements done by Tontini. Then a new aggregation approach permits the definition of global needs (multi-stakeholders needs). The final objective is the simulation of the innovation actors' behavior in a multi-agents system (MAS), where through different management mechanisms, the actors may agree about their needs. A software based on a MAS was developed as well, to calculate the actors relationships and obtain the extra needs of them before (VMo) and after the innovation impact (VMIn). It helps designers to take decisions according to the needs priorities. An experimental stage of the process took place with the collaboration of different economic areas
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Francisco Toledo Rojas. Analyse d'impacts du lancement de procédés innovants: Application des théories multicritères pour une évaluation robuste. Autre. Université de Lorraine, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014LORR0057⟩. ⟨tel-01750765⟩

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