Les microARN : biomarqueurs et cibles thérapeuthiques des maladies cardiovasculaires

Abstract : Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death in the world. Major issues in the management of these patients lie on the diagnosis and the prediction of the prognosis. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small single-stranded non-coding RNAs that inhibit gene expression. Circulating miRNAs appeared as potentials biomarkers of cardiovascular diseases. MicroRNAs could be also useful to stimulate cardiac repair. We hypothesized that miRNAs could be used as biomarkers of cardiovascular diseases, and also as therapeutic tools to improve cardiac repair after myocardial infarction. We evaluated the diagnostic capacity of miRNAs in patients with chest pain. MicroRNA-208b and miR-499 were potential diagnostic biomarkers in patients with myocardial infarction, without improving the diagnostic accuracy of traditional biomarkers. MicroRNA-423-5p predicted the rehospitalization of patients with acute heart failure and miR-21 and miR-122 are associated with neurological damage after cardiac arrest. Overall, our results indicate that circulating miRNAs could be useful diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers of cardiovascular diseases. We also showed that inhibiting miR-16 could stimulate the proliferation, differentiation and pro-angiogenic capacities of endothelial progenitor cells and that miR-150 is involved in the effect of adenosine on the recruitment of these cells after myocardial infarction. These results suggest that miRNAs could be used to improve the revascularization after myocardial infarction. In conclusion, our studies contributed to the characterization of several miRNAs, which clinical utility in the cardiovascular field remains to be confirmed.
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Emeline Goretti. Les microARN : biomarqueurs et cibles thérapeuthiques des maladies cardiovasculaires. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université de Lorraine, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014LORR0130⟩. ⟨tel-01750958⟩

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