Fouille de données spatiales et modélisation de linéaires de paysages agricoles

Abstract : This thesis is part of a partnership between INRA and INRIA in the field of knowledge extraction from spatial databases. The study focuses on the characterization and simulation of agricultural landscapes. More specifically, we focus on linears that structure the agricultural landscape, such as roads, irrigation ditches and hedgerows. Our goal is to model the spatial distribution of hedgerows because of their role in many ecological and environmental processes. We more specifically study how to characterize the spatial structure of hedgerows in two contrasting agricultural landscapes, one located in south-eastern France (mainly composed of orchards) and the second in Brittany (western France, \emph{bocage}-type). We determine if the spatial distribution of hedgerows is structured by the position of the more perennial linear landscape features, such as roads and ditches, or not. In such a case, we also detect the circumstances under which this spatial distribution is structured and the scale of these structures. The implementation of the process of Knowledge Discovery in Databases (KDD) is comprised of different preprocessing steps and data mining algorithms which combine mathematical and computational methods. The first part of the thesis focuses on the creation of a statistical spatial index, based on a geometric neighborhood concept and allowing the characterization of structures of hedgerows. Spatial index allows to describe the structures of hedgerows in the landscape. The results show that hedgerows depend on more permanent linear elements at short distances, and that their neighborhood is uniform beyond 150 meters. In addition different neighborhood structures have been identified depending on the orientation of hedgerows in the South-East of France but not in Brittany. The second part of the thesis explores the potential of coupling linearization methods with Markov methods. The linearization methods are based on the use of alternative Hilbert curves: Hilbert adaptive paths. The linearized spatial data thus constructed were then treated with Markov methods. These methods have the advantage of being able to serve both for the machine learning and for the generation of new data, for example in the context of the simulation of a landscape. The results show that the combination of these methods for learning and automatic generation of hedgerows captures some characteristics of the different study landscapes. The first simulations are encouraging despite the need for post-processing. Finally, this work has enabled the creation of a spatial data mining method based on different tools that support all stages of a classic KDD, from the selection of data to the visualization of results. Furthermore, this method was constructed in such a way that it can also be used for data generation, a component necessary for the simulation of landscapes
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Sébastien da Silva. Fouille de données spatiales et modélisation de linéaires de paysages agricoles. Autre [cs.OH]. Université de Lorraine, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014LORR0156⟩. ⟨tel-01751051⟩

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