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Enzymologie des étapes clés de régulation du système Peroxyrédoxine / Sulfirédoxine dans le contexte de la signalisation cellulaire redox

Abstract : The peroxiredoxins (Prx) are ubiquitous thiol peroxidases, which play a central role in the physiology of hydrogen peroxide. A subclass of Prx called "typical 2-Cys-Prx" has a unique property to hyperoxidize the catalytic Cys into the sulfinic acid form, which acts as a regulation mechanism of their functions, as peroxidase, peroxide sensor or protein chaperone. The reduction of the overoxidized form is catalyzed by sulfiredoxin (Srx), an ATP-dependent sulfinyl reductase whose catalytic constant is about 1-2 min-1, a low value that must be correlated to the role of Srx in redox regulation. The aim of this study was to analyze the enzymology of the regulation of the Prx/Srx system at three diffrents points of control: the hyper-oxidation process of typical 2-Cys-Prx, the rate-limiting step of the Srx mechanism and the recycling step of Srx by the cellular thiol redox systems. We have first characterized the competition mechanism between the two steps of the catalytic mechanism of the major typical 2-Cys-Prx of S. cerevisiae, Tsa1, through a strategy combining rapid kinetics, coupled enzyme system and kinetic modelling analysis. This work suggests that the sensitivity to hyper-oxidation is controlled by a conformational reorganization during the catalytic cycle of Tsa1. Next, the study of the first step of Srx catalytic mechanism, which involves the ATP-dependent activation of the sulfinic acid form of typical 2-Cys Prx i) has shown that the rate-limiting step is associated with the chemical phosphate transfer process, and ii) provided an assembly model of the Michaelien complex Prx/Srx/ATP, formed during this process. Finally, through the combination of in vitro enzyme kinetics and in vivo yeast genetic tools, we established that the recycling mechanism of one Cys Srx, existing in plants or mammals, involves the glutathione (GSH) as reducer in cells, contrary to the Srx from S. cerevisiae, which is recycled by the Thioredoxin system. Unexpectedly, our study suggests that GSH binds the thiolsulfinate complex, confirming the role of GSH as the primary reducing system of 1-Cys-Srx
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Samia Boukhenouna. Enzymologie des étapes clés de régulation du système Peroxyrédoxine / Sulfirédoxine dans le contexte de la signalisation cellulaire redox. Biochimie, Biologie Moléculaire. Université de Lorraine, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014LORR0251⟩. ⟨tel-01751271⟩

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