Ostéogénie, intégration et qualité de la nacre d’un bivalve des côtes tunisiennes : Pinctada radiata (Leach, 1814)

Abstract : The nacre layer of the shell of the pearl oyster Pinctada radiata of tunisian coast is considered a promising osteogenic biomaterial. The objective of this work entitled "Osteogenie, integration and quality of nacre of a tunisian coast bivalve: Pinctada radiata (Leach, 1814)" is a first step to enhance the species P.radiata its nutritional quality by seasonal monitoring of the composition of the flesh of total lipids and phospholipids in particular PC, PE, PS and PI. The analyzes showed that lipids of P.radiata are characterized by rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) of the n-3 more than 3 times that of PUFAs n-6 series. These PUFAs of the n-3 series particularly EPA (C20: 5n-3) and DHA (C22: 6n-3) are known to be the most important AG in the food as prevent of the cardiovascular disease, and joint/ bone pathologies. Moreover, P. radiata of Mahares region has the best quality of nacre in Tunisia. Biochemical analyzes showed that this region is the best location of this species that is far from the port areas and different sources of stress (fishing, exploitation, tourist area etc ...). In addition to this aspect, the area contains pintadines having good quality in terms of thickness of nacre. Our results show that the seasonal composition of fatty acid of phospholipids in particular glycerophospholipids (PE, PI, PS and PC) nacre is rich in saturated fatty acids C14: 0, C16: 0 and C18: 0 especially in winter and spring in a lesser degree. Nacre, osteogenic substance, was also characterized by a high rate of PUFA of the n-3 and n-6 rate, especially (18: 3n-3, 18: 4n-3, 20: 5n-3, 22 5n-3, 22: 6n-3 and 20: 4n-6). To demonstrate the osteogenic potential of extracts of nacre, we have established an "in vitro" model using 4 lipid extracts: the lipid extract of nacre P.radiata (Ln); the lipid extract of the flesh of P.radiata (Lc), ESM (Ethanol soluble Matrix) of the mother-of P.radiata (Br) and ESM nacre of P. margaritifera (Bm). We compared “in vitro” osteogenic power ESM extracts of both species P. radiata and P. margaritifera on two types of cells the préchondrocytes ATDC5 and the murine preosteoblasts MC3T3. The different extracts (Ln, Lc, Br and Bm) induce engagement MC3T3 osteoblast lineage cells to the activation of the promoters of specific genes of bone tissue, such as collagen type 1, osteocalcin (OC), osteopontin (OP) and Runx2. These extracts also induce the commitment of ATDC5 cells to endochondral differentiation by activating specific genes promoters of bone tissue, such as collagen type 1 alpha 1 (COL1A1), the aggrecan and collagen type alpha 1-X (ColXA1). Moreover, we note that the organic fraction or ESMR (Br) compared with that of P. margaritifera (Bm) also has stimulant properties of nacre and the stimulation is even more important. These results demonstrate, in experimental models used, the interest of lipids. They seem to play an important role in this stimulation. Moreover, we can think about the possibility of the association of molecules or nacre biomineralization with the fatty acids of the nacre and flesh in bone defects through the active sites of bone or cartilage presenting the human osteoarticular different pathologies
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Rym Ben Ammar. Ostéogénie, intégration et qualité de la nacre d’un bivalve des côtes tunisiennes : Pinctada radiata (Leach, 1814). Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université de Lorraine, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014LORR0260⟩. ⟨tel-01751289⟩

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