Caractérisation biochimique et fonctionnelle de glutathion transférases à cystéine catalytique de peuplier (Populus trichocarpa)

Abstract : Glutathione transferases (GSTs) constitute a ubiquitous superfamily of multifunctional enzymes involved in cellular detoxification processes by metabolizing exogenous substrates called xenobiotics and in secondary metabolism. For this purpose, these enzymes catalyze the conjugation of a glutathione molecule (GSH) onto target compounds or simply bind them through a ligandin function. While conjugation reactions are catalyzed by GSTs having a serine or a tyrosine as catalytic residues, other GSTs possess a cysteine. This substitution radically changes their properties since GSTs having a cysteine (Cys-GSTs) rather catalyze deglutathionylation reactions. Cys-GSTs are found in most organisms and are divided into several classes. In plants, there are mainly four classes: dehydroascorbate reductases (DHARs), Lambda GSTs (GSTLs), glutathionyl hydroquinone reductases (GHRs), and microsomal prostaglandin E-synthase type 2 (mPGES). While the role of DHARs seems clearly associated to the reduction of dehydroascorbate into ascorbate, the physiological function of other Cys-GSTs remains largely unknown. By combining molecular, cellular, biochemical and structural approaches, the functional analysis of the two GHRs, the three GSTLs and the three DHARs in the model tree Populus trichocarpa was undertaken. Interestingly, GSTL and GHR genes are predominantly expressed in flowers, fruits and petioles compared to leaves and roots. Conversely, the DHAR genes are mainly expressed in leaves. Furthermore, transient expression of proteins fused to GFP in tobacco showed that GSTLs and DHARs are localized in plastids, cytoplasm and nucleus while GHRs are all localized in plastids. Biochemical and structural studies using recombinant proteins and model substrates showed that most Cys-GSTs have similar activities and structures. However, although GSTLs and DHARs adopt a canonical GST folding similar to that of fungal and human Omega GSTs, they are monomeric whereas Omega GSTs are dimeric. GHRs are particular owing to their unique dimerization interface and to their specific capacity to reduce glutathionylated quinones. In summary, the nature of the substrates bound by Cys-GSTs (heterocyclic aromatic compounds) as well as the expression territories of these genes and proteins, suggest that they are generally involved in the protection of plants towards environmental constraints through the modification, storage and/or transport of secondary metabolites and other antioxidants. However, the next goal will be to determine the exact nature of the substrates/ligands associated with each enzyme
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Pierre-Alexandre Lallement. Caractérisation biochimique et fonctionnelle de glutathion transférases à cystéine catalytique de peuplier (Populus trichocarpa). Sciences agricoles. Université de Lorraine, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014LORR0275⟩. ⟨tel-01751317⟩

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