Valorisation chimique de la biomasse oléagineuse d’origine béninoise: Lophira lanceolata et Carapa procera

Abstract : The chemical composition of wild oilseeds, such as Lophira lanceolata (Ll) and Carapa procera (Cp) of Benin is mostly unknown. Yet they undergo crafted transformations for food, cosmetic and therapeutic purposes. This study aims to characterize their seeds, hulls and woods. From these crops, different oils have been extracted. One of them has been produced in rural area according to aqueous ancestral method. On the whole, oils of Ll have presented an interesting nutritional profile. They are rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (> 50% m/m: mass for mass), especially that extracted by artisanal process. Beyond its good chemical properties, it provides essential fatty acids, phytosterols such as lupeol and more tocols compounds. Roasting and the use of enzymes have also assessed the impact of these methods on the chemical composition of LI seeds. Differently, Cp oil’s has an abundant presence of MUFA, tocotrienols (85.56% w/w) and the richest composition in lanosterol (28.03%, m/m). The seeds cakes, hulls and wood of both species showed various distributions on chemical components (extractives, hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin). The characterization of hemicelluloses from different parts of plants has shown that they are essentially glucuronoxylans type. Extractives also offered a wide range of compounds mostly appreciated for industrial and pharmaceutical purposes. The chemical composition of the shells of Lophira was rich in organic compounds such as lignin (32.13%, dry weight) so their biosorbent capacity was evaluated. They showed methylene blue good adsorption capacity in aqueous solution, which highlighted their potential use in the purification of wastewater
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Guévara Nonviho. Valorisation chimique de la biomasse oléagineuse d’origine béninoise: Lophira lanceolata et Carapa procera. Alimentation et Nutrition. Université de Lorraine, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015LORR0052⟩. ⟨tel-01751623⟩

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