Influence de stress environnementaux sur les propriétés physicochimiques de jeunes biofilms en cours de formation : étude par spectroscopies vibrationnelles infrarouge-Raman et de force AFM

Abstract : Biofilms are complex communities of microorganisms, embedded in an auto-produced matrix of extracellular polymeric substances or EPS. Biofilms form on the surface of most materials, whether or not they are of biological nature, and cause major economic problems as well as public health concerns. Bacteria within a biofilm also called sessile bacteria, have phenotypic characteristics that distinguish them from their planktonic counterparts, rendering them more resistant to antibiotics and to disinfection strategies. Hence, the prevention of their formation and/ or their elimination requires the use of strategies that are well suited to the sessile mode of life. The development of these strategies begins with a better understanding of the physicochemical contributions that govern the interaction between the sessile community and its environment especially during the first steps of biofilm formation. Two main objectives were defined at the beginning of this thesis, the first was to characterize, in situ, and in real time the development of nascent biofilms. Two bacterial models were studied: a natural and ubiquitous strain of Pseudomonas fluorescens and a model strain of Escherichia coli genetically modified to overexpress one type of EPS. The second objectif was to study their responses towards an environmental or chemical stress; particularly how their development would be affected under extreme conditions of pH. To gain these objectives, different techniques were combined to study from the molecular to the cellular scale the development of biofilms. Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy in attenuated total reflection mode was used to evaluate in real time the development of biofilms. We were able to detect changes in the IR-ATR spectral profile along biofilm formation under favorable and non favorable growth conditions. 24 h - old biofilms were characterized using confocal Raman microspectroscopy, which allowed us to gather localized information on their chemical composition. The structure of biofilms was visualized using epifluorescence microscocopy. Finally, physico-chemical properties of EPS were quantified using single molecule force spectroscopy
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Dima Jamal. Influence de stress environnementaux sur les propriétés physicochimiques de jeunes biofilms en cours de formation : étude par spectroscopies vibrationnelles infrarouge-Raman et de force AFM. Autre. Université de Lorraine, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015LORR0075⟩. ⟨tel-01751714⟩

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