Analyse des mécanismes primaires de pyrolyse de la biomasse

Abstract : Current research studies focus on biomass thermochemical conversion to produce other energetic vectors more appropriate to be conveyed, such as electricity, gas or liquid products. Pyrolysis is the first mechanism occurring in all thermochemical processes for solid fuels conversion (combustion, gasification, pyrolysis). It controls in a large extent products (gas, condensables and char) distribution and composition. The prediction of pyrolysis products and the understanding of the chemical mechanisms are thus pivotal for developing thermochemical reactors. Extensive work has been conducted for more than one century but the important heterogeneity of biomasses and pyrolysis conditions make it difficult to encompass a global chemical mechanism. The aim of this study is to develop complementary analyses of pyrolysis products. Pyrolysis is conducted in a fixed bed reactor under slow pyrolysis conditions (5 K/min), for a wide range of final temperature (200°C and 500°C) and for different biomasses (miscanthus, douglas and oak). Various analytical methods have been used in order to characterise the pyrolysis products: nuclear magnetic resonance (carbon 13C and proton 1H NMR), Calorimetry, Thermogravimetry, GC/MS (Gas Chromatography and Mass spectrometry), LC/MS (Liquid Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry) and soft ionization mass spectrometry (Single Photo Ionisation SPI). Original analytical methods such as 2D NMR HETCOR 1H-13C (for the analysis of chemical moieties in char) and high temperature 1H NMR (for in-situ analysis of mobile protons) have been used. The latter allowed a novel characterization of the interaction between biomass and minerals during pyrolysis
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Yann Le Brech. Analyse des mécanismes primaires de pyrolyse de la biomasse. Alimentation et Nutrition. Université de Lorraine, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015LORR0106⟩. ⟨tel-01751801⟩

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