Influence de l’association de quantum dots ZnO avec des ions Cu²+ sur leur (photo)toxicité. Nouveaux matériaux ZnO/rGO pour la photocatalyse solaire

Abstract : In recent years, tremendous advances in nanotechnology and materials science have led to the synthesis of many new nanoparticles without really knowing all the properties associated with their dimensions. The first part of our work aims to evaluate the risks and problems associated with nanomaterials, in terms of toxicity, using ZnO nanoparticles. We first studied the ability of these nanoparticles to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) under UV irradiation using three ZnO-based quantum dots (QDs) as models, ZnO, ZnO doped with Cu2+ ions and ZnO with chimisorbed Cu2+ ions at their periphery. The three QDs have a strong capacity of generating ROS but those modified with Cu2+ at their surface were found the be the highest producers. These dots were also found to inhibit more markedly the growth of the E. coli bacteria. The toxicity does neither depend on the amount of photo-generated ROS nor on the amount of Zn(+2) leaked by the QDs, thus indicating that a more complex mechanism should be considered. In a second part, we tried to improve the photocatalytic efficiency of ZnO nanorods by associating these nanomaterials with reduced graphene oxide (rGO). ZnO/rGO composites were prepared by a solvothermal method and applied for the photodegradation of Orange II used as model pollutant. Results obtained demonstrate that the ZnO/rGO photocatalyst is highly efficient under solar and under visible light irradiation and weakly sensitive to pH changes and to the presence of perturbators in the reaction medium. Finally, the photocatalyst is stable and can be reused up to ten times without significant loss of catalytic activity.
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Hatem Moussa. Influence de l’association de quantum dots ZnO avec des ions Cu²+ sur leur (photo)toxicité. Nouveaux matériaux ZnO/rGO pour la photocatalyse solaire. Autre. Université de Lorraine, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016LORR0036⟩. ⟨tel-01752216⟩

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