Efficacité des manuels scolaires dans l’acquisition et la maitrise de la lecture sémantique en arabe langue étrangère : diagnostic et orientations pédagogiques avec la réalisation de corpus

Abstract : If we take the following definition literally: « Reading is understanding », Reading Comprehension thus, becomes the sole significant measure to take into account when we evaluate the capacity to read a text. Indeed, the students who learn Arabic are unable to master semantic reading at the end of their Lycée (High school) cycle. When we consider the results of their oral exams, we note that they decipher a text without really being able to introduce, explain and analyse it. They do not really understand its meaning. They often spend their time talking about it at a superficial level, without being able to nuance their explanations. In the end, they remain no more than novice readers who can only decipher! These difficulties can also be noted with their written exams, therefore affecting the oral and comprehension of the students who can speak the dialect as well as those who cannot. Yet, The Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFRL) clearly recommends a totally fresh approach whose aim is to rethink the objectives and the teaching methods of foreign languages, and most of all, it sets a common basis for the conceptions of curricula. Indeed, the CEFRL considers that the teaching/learning of a foreign language must be done through media or textbooks that take into account not only the social and cultural background, but also the language itself in its evolution and in its diglossic reality, unlike what is unfortunately still too often the case in Arabic language textbooks, which are randomly devised according to a normative, orthographic and grammatical inspiration. In chapter 6 of the CEFRL, the requirement is on methodology and can be epitomized in two questions: “How can we acquire and learn a new foreign language? What can be done to facilitate the learning and acquisition process?” That is how, from 2005 onwards, how some language textbooks designers started to devise methods, books, toolboxes, which in their introduction parts claim that they are productions that comply with the recommendations of the CEFRL, and labelled them A1, A2. These language textbooks unfortunately keep considering the acquisition of the reading skills as a deciphering or decoding operation. They are presented according to a linguistic and grammatical progression without taking into account the fact that a number of our students not only belong to heterogeneous social and cultural backgrounds, and that many come to the Arabic class already speaking an Arabic dialect, with its multiple regional varieties. As for other course books, honourable efforts can indeed be observed. Some designers take into account the different dialectal varieties by integrating some dialectal references so as to reassure the students who speak a dialect about the existing and possible bridges between the different language levels and registers of Arabic, and to enable the learners who do not speak a dialect to use expressions that will be socially understandable and ready to be used in order to make them aware of the diglossic problems of Arabic. It is true that “Official Instructions” recommend that Arabic teachers should leave an important place to dialectal varieties and to communication, but unfortunately, a lot of course books simply ignore all that wealth, for they are guided by an all normative approach. We are convinced today that French students (of Arabic origin or not) are not taught the Arabic language the same way and with the same objectives, Arabic students from Morocco, Lebanon or Egypt are.
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Mohamed Naoui. Efficacité des manuels scolaires dans l’acquisition et la maitrise de la lecture sémantique en arabe langue étrangère : diagnostic et orientations pédagogiques avec la réalisation de corpus. Linguistique. Université de Lorraine, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015LORR0324⟩. ⟨tel-01752221⟩

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