Phénoplasticité, polymorphisme génétique, gestion conservatoire du genre Elodea

Abstract : The north-eastern part of France has been invaded by two different Elodea species : Elodea nuttalli and Elodea canadensis, which emerged in Europe respectively during 19th and 20th centuries. This research aims to improve the knowledge about such species. First of all, a cytological approach has enabled us to count 52 chromosomes for the very first Elodea nuttalli and Elodea canadensis that appeared in France and might lead us to propose a new hypothesis regarding the base number of chromosomes. Then, a genetic study by AFLP procedure showed, an important clonal reproduction among European population. And it presents an important genetic distance with the native population, probably linked to an important bottleneck that came into play when the species were introduced. Unexpectedly, the newest Elodea nuttalli in Europe presents a high genetic variability, as a result of recent multiple sources introduction. Furthermore, another study compares the morphological variation of native and introduced populations of Elodea nuttallii in the field. The results show that introduced plants can be very distinct in their growth form and size from conspecifics in the native range. Moreover, we investigated the phenology and the phenotypic variation of genetically uniform populations of Elodea nuttallii. A significant difference in morphological traits appeared among the dates and among the sites. This capacity to respond to environmental quality has been interpreted as an expression of foraging behaviour. Finally, different methods to control the spread have been evaluated, especially manual harvesting
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Fiorant Di Nino. Phénoplasticité, polymorphisme génétique, gestion conservatoire du genre Elodea. Biologie végétale. Université Paul Verlaine - Metz, 2008. Français. ⟨NNT : 2008METZ036S⟩. ⟨tel-01752603⟩

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