Crystallographic study on Ni-Mn-Ga ferromagnetic shape memory alloys

Abstract : Ni-Mn-Ga ferromagnetic shape memory alloys (FSMAs) with chemical composition close to Ni2MnGa have received great attention due to their giant magnetic shape memory effect and fast dynamic response. In this work, the crystal structure, martensitic transformation crystallography, texture and alloying in Ni-Mn-Ga FSMAs are systematically investigated. In situ neutron diffraction experiments show that Ni53Mn25Ga22 has a tetragonal I4/mmm structure from 20K to 403K, with a pretransformation occurring in the martensitic phase around room temperaure. Ni48Mn30Ga22 has a cubic, L21 Heusler structure from 373K to 293K. Its crystal structure changes into a seven-layered orthorhombic martensitic structure when cooled to 243K. There is no intermartensitic transformation upon further cooling to 19K. Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analyses show that the neighboring martensitic variants in the Ni53Mn25Ga22 alloy have a compound twinning relationship with the twinning elements K1 = {112}, K2 = {112}, ?1 = <111>, ?2 = <111>, P = {110} and s =0.379. The twin interface plane coincides with the twinning plane. The ratio of the relative amounts of twins within the same initial austenite grain is ~1.70. The main orientation relationship between austenite (A) and martensite (M) is Kurdjumov-Sachs (K-S) relationship with (111)A//(101)M, [110]A//[111]M. Based on the crystallographic phenomenological theory, the calculated habit plane is {0.690 -0.102 0.716}A (5.95° from {101}A), and the magnitude, direction and shear angle of the macroscopic transformation shear are 0.121, <-0.709 0.105 0.698>A (6.04° from <-101>A) and 6.88°, respectively. Nanoscale twins inside the martensitic lamellae are found in the Ni53Mn25Ga22 alloy annealed at 1173K for 4h followed by furnace cooling. Two kinds of interfaces, i.e. interpenetrated inter-lamellar interface and stepped intra-lamellar interface, are observed. The orientation relationships between the nanotwins connected by different interface configurations are determined. Texture in Ni-Mn-Ga FSMAs is developed by hot forging. The texture evolution in the hot-forged Ni48Mn25Ga22Co5 alloy after room temperature deformation and subsequent annealing is found to be closely related to its thermally activated shape memory effect. The texture changes significantly during deformation and it recovers to its initial state after subsequent annealing. An excellent shape memory effect with a recovery ratio of 74% is observed. The substitution of Co for Ni in Ni53-xMn25Ga22Cox (x=0-14) alloys proves very efficient in increasing the Curie temperature. It only slightly decreases the martensitic transformation temperature when the Co content is less than 6%. In contrast, an abrupt decrease of martensitic transformation temperature is observed when the Co content exceeds 6%, due to the atomic disorder as a result of the addition of a large amount of Co. It is suggested that the substitution of a small amount of Co for Ni is helpful to the development of FSMAs with high martensitic transformation temperature and high Curie temperature. Insights into the fundamental aspects such as microstructure, crystallography and phase transformation in Ni-Mn-Ga FSMAs are of great significance to the improvement of the functional performances of the present Ni-Mn-Ga alloys and to the design of new promising FSMAs
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Daoyong Cong. Crystallographic study on Ni-Mn-Ga ferromagnetic shape memory alloys. Other. Université Paul Verlaine - Metz, 2008. English. ⟨NNT : 2008METZ045S⟩. ⟨tel-01752609⟩

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