Étude des mécanismes moléculaires impliqués dans la mort neuronale induite par le peptide de ß-amyloïde soluble : recherche et validation fonctionnelle de cibles cellulaires

Abstract : Aging of population is correlated to the increase of neurodegenerative disease, more particularly Alzheimer disease. Defining early diagnostic markers and new therapeutic strategies are highly relevant. Among the molecular pathways which are currently developed, N-terminal-truncated forms of amyloid-ß (Aß) peptide have been recently suggested to play a pivotal role in the disease. Among them, Aß3(pE) 42 peptide is the dominant Aß species in amyloid plaques. We first investigated the effects of soluble oligomeric Aß3(pE) 42 after intracerebroventricular injection on mice learning capacities and the molecular mechanisms of in vitro neurotoxicity. Mice injected with soluble Aß3(pE) 42 displayed impaired spatial working memory and delayed memory acquisition. These cognitive alterations were associated with free radical overproduction in hippocampus and olfactory bulbs. In vitro, Aß3(pE) 42 oligomers induced a redox-sensitive neuronal apoptosis involving caspase activation and an arachidonic acid-dependent pathway. The second goal of this work was to investigate the protective effects of the apoptosis rescue endogenous peptide humanin (HN) and its S14G mutant (HNG). In vitro, we measured their inhibitory effect on neuronal death and apoptotic events resulting from soluble Ab oligomer treatment. What's of particular interest is the in vivo restoration of soluble Aß3(pE) 42 oligomer-induced mnesic impairment. Thus, HN peptides might serve as new drug candidates for treatment or prevention of early cellular damages linked to soluble Aß oligomers
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Ihsen Youssef. Étude des mécanismes moléculaires impliqués dans la mort neuronale induite par le peptide de ß-amyloïde soluble : recherche et validation fonctionnelle de cibles cellulaires. Alimentation et Nutrition. Institut National Polytechnique de Lorraine, 2006. Français. ⟨NNT : 2006INPL068N⟩. ⟨tel-01752765⟩

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