Extraction, fractionnement et caractérisation des lipides polyinsaturés d'oeufs de la truite arc-en-ciel (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

Abstract : Fish eggs, especially those of the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in the present study, are an interesting nutritional aquatic source. They contain proteins of high value, as well as an oil rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) with a large percentage of phospholipids. However, they exhibit a high auto-protection capacity against environmental constraints and thus, the degree of hydrolysis of rainbow trout eggs by Alcalase®, Neutrase® and Protamex® proteases varied solely within 3-7 %. This value was low compared with the 20 % obtained in most animal proteins. The phospholipid content was high (53 % of total lipids) and PUFA accounted for 42 % of total fatty acids. Among PUFA, DHA was found preferably at the sn-2 position of the glycerol backbone, which is of special interest about nutritional properties. The oil release by enzymatic hydrolysis was found limited compared with chemical methods, probably because of the strong interactions engaged with the incomplete destructured protein network. The oxidative stability of the oil was studied through several methods in which the infrared Fourier transform appeared as the best tool for structural analysis along the oxidation process. As a conclusion, lipids from fish eggs, especially from rainbow trout, could be a nutritional breakthrough, as far the enzymatic hydrolysis of the vitellus and of the chorion proteins is achieved
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Kassem Al-Sayed Mahmoud. Extraction, fractionnement et caractérisation des lipides polyinsaturés d'oeufs de la truite arc-en-ciel (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Sciences agricoles. Institut National Polytechnique de Lorraine, 2007. Français. ⟨NNT : 2007INPL087N⟩. ⟨tel-01752856⟩

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