Étude de la filtration des aérosols nanométriques

Abstract : This study aims to better understand the mechanisms encountered in nanoparticles aerosol filtration, the particles being charged or not. Three different types of media were studied: stainless steel or synthetics wire screens, unwoven filters in glass or polymer fibres, and at last, granular beds made from steel or zeolite balls. Experimental results show that, whatever the media, collection efficiency increases as the particle diameter decreases down to 4 nm. This point conflicts with the so-called thermal rebound effect developed by Wang and Kasper in 1991, according to which collection efficiency could decrease below 10 nm. The checking of Wang and Kasper's calculations enables to explain this discrepancy and shows from more probable particle-to-fibre adhesion energy values that if thermal rebound phenomenon exists, it would only be measurable below 1 nm. Then, experimental points can be modelled from both diffusion and electrostatic forces collection mechanisms. An investigation on the filtration behaviour of fibreglass filters in the nanometric domain when intentionally-pierced with calibrated needles completes the above-mentioned works. For a same media, penetration increases as the leak diameter does. On the other hand, for a given hole size, penetration becomes independent of the particle diameter below a critical scale, which is a function of the leak diameter. It was lastly shown that the efficiency of a pierced media decreases all the more that its air flow resistance is higher. A semi-empirical model based on the differentiation between the aerosol flow across the leak and the one through the residual fibrous bed of the filter enables to well represent these points
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Guillaume Mouret. Étude de la filtration des aérosols nanométriques. Autre. Institut National Polytechnique de Lorraine, 2008. Français. ⟨NNT : 2008INPL063N⟩. ⟨tel-01753001⟩

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