Synthèse de dérivés fonctionnels de petits peptides par voie enzymatique

Abstract : The present work consisted in studying the N and/or O-enzymatic acylation of amino alcohols and dipeptides. A preliminary study was firstly undertaken about the enzymatic acylation of a bifunctionnal model molecule, 6-amino-1-hexanol and demonstrated the ability of the lipase B of Candida antarctica to catalyze the acylation of this substrate in different reaction media. The reaction performed in organic solvents (hexane, 2-methyl-2-butanol) allowed to the synthesis of the diacylated product with a substrate conversion yield of 85 %, showing the absence of chimio-selectivity of the reaction. The use of a solvent-free system constituted of free fatty acid and the use of supercritical carbon dioxide permitted to orientate the selectivity of the reaction in favour of the O-acylation. Ionic liquids with imidazolium cation and few nucleophilic anions led to a substrate conversion of 99 % and to maintain the absence of chemo-selectivity observed in organic solvents. Then, the study focused on the acylation of model dipeptides like Lys-Ser, HCl and Ser-Leu. Results relative to the acylation of Lys-Ser, HCl catalyzed by the lipase B of Candida antarctica immobilized showed a selectivity in favour of the acylation of the e-amino function independently of the reaction medium. The Ser-Leu O-acylation permitted to demonstrate the influence of the molecular environment (electro-attractor C terminal carboxylic group) on the reactivity of the serine hydroxyl function. Finally, the enzymatic acylation of a bioactive dipeptide was catalyzed by the lipase B of Candida antarctica immobilized in organic solvent and by the acyl-transferase of Candida parapsilosis in lipid-aqueous biphasic medium. The acylation of carnosine allowed the N-oleyl carnosine synthesis. The acylation of carnosine did not affect its xanthine oxydase inhibition activity and seemed to improve its superoxyde anion scavenging property
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Eric Husson. Synthèse de dérivés fonctionnels de petits peptides par voie enzymatique. Alimentation et Nutrition. Institut National Polytechnique de Lorraine, 2008. Français. ⟨NNT : 2008INPL061N⟩. ⟨tel-01753057⟩

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