Étude des mécanismes d'action de bactériocines de la sous classe IIa

Abstract : The action site of sub-class IIa bacteriocins is the cytoplasmic membrane of Gram-positive bacteria. The current view of the mechanism of action is divided into three steps: (i) adsorption of bacteriocins on the membrane; (ii) apparition of the structures of peptide and integration into the lipid double layer (iii) formation of pores. The presence of pores leads to efflux of vital cell compounds. They cause growth stop or bacterial death. The degree of penetration of mesenterocin 52A into the membrane was measured by fluorescence anisotropy of two probes, TMA-DPH and the DPH, which target the surface or the depth of the membrane, respectively. Different results were obtained with two bacterial species of the genus Listeria. In the first hand, the peptide is partially inserted into the membrane and in the second hand in depth. These results suggest that mesenterocin 52A can exhibit two different mechanisms leading to the same antibacterial effect. To better understand the interactions between bacteriocins and the target cell, the degree of penetration of mesenterocin 52A into the membrane of three Leuconostoc strains, the first sensitive, the second naturally resistant and last induced resistant, was characterized. It seems that the resistance phenotype is correlated with physical and chemical properties of the cell envelope. To generalize the results observed with mesenterocin 52A, other bacteriocins of sub-class IIa, the carnobacteriocins Cbn BM1 and Cbn B2, produced by Carnobacterium maltaromaticum CP5 strain, were studied. These bacteriocins were produced in E. coli and subsequently purified. The optimization of the production process in a reactor led to purify up to 300 mg of peptides for 1.5 liter of culture. The mode of action of carnobacteriocins, alone or in combination, was determined with prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells as targets. The carnobacteriocins Cbn BM1 and Cbn B2 have a synergistic mode of action against sensitive bacteria and are not cytotoxic against Caco-2 cell line
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Jordane Jasniewski. Étude des mécanismes d'action de bactériocines de la sous classe IIa. Autre. Institut National Polytechnique de Lorraine, 2008. Français. ⟨NNT : 2008INPL100N⟩. ⟨tel-01753062⟩

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