Etude des mécanismes physiopathologiques impliqués dans les apnées centrales du sommeil associées à l'insuffisance cardiaque chronique : données expérimentales animales et applications à l'Homme

Abstract : During sleep, control of breathing is greatly influenced by metabolic information. Whether this chemical control of ventilation is involved in the genesis of central sleep apneas with CheyneStokes respiration in severe congestive heart patients is unknown and the subject of our work. It includes three series of experiments in animal models to clarify the mechanisms involved in the hypocapnia-induced apneas, the anatomical structures mediating such a ventilatory response and the specific effects of heart failure on the control of breathing, leading to an increased susceptibility to central apneas. More specifically a sleeping dog model was used, allowing the study of periodic breathing induced by a transient hyperventilation, with and without any acute pulmonary vascular congestion. We were interested in conditions capable of changing the apneic threshold defined as the arterial or end-expiratory partial carbon dioxide pressure below which ventilation ceases. Two mechanisms possibly involved in human pathology were investigated : 1- changes in the activity of the peripheral chemoreceptors 2- pulmonary vascular congestion. Whereas the arterial chemoreceptors are involved in the genesis of hypocapnia-induced apneas and the cardio-respiratory structures activated by a pulmonary edema facilitate the occurrence of central apneas, these mechanisms were not able to fully explain the description of the Cheyne-Stokes respiration in Humans. The relevance of these results must be evaluated in Human and the role played by the non-chemical information of the control of breathing in the genesis of central apneas must be more precisely studied.
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Bruno Chenuel. Etude des mécanismes physiopathologiques impliqués dans les apnées centrales du sommeil associées à l'insuffisance cardiaque chronique : données expérimentales animales et applications à l'Homme. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université Henri Poincaré - Nancy 1, 2006. Français. ⟨NNT : 2006NAN11308⟩. ⟨tel-01754265⟩

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