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Étude des gluthation transférases de la classe Phi du peuplier (Populus trichocarpa) : caractérisation structurale, enzymatique et recherche de molécules cibles

Abstract : Glutathione transferases (GSTs) belong to a multigenic family whose presence in most eukaryotes, prokaryotes and archaea reflects their widespread nature and very likely important functions. These enzymes represent a major group of enzymes involved in xenobiotic detoxification and secondary metabolism. From the most recent genomic and phylogenetic analyses, the GST family is subdivided into 14 classes that can be separated into two main groups based on the catalytic residue which is either a serine (Ser-GST) or a cysteine (Cys-GST). Ser-GSTs usually catalyze glutathione (GSH) conjugation and/or peroxide reduction. On the other hand, Cys-GSTs cannot perform GSH-conjugation reactions but instead catalyze thiol-transferase, dehydroascorbate reductase and deglutathionylation reactions. Ser-GSTs from the Phi class (GSTF) are present in photosynthetic organisms and some basidiomycetes. This class is composed of a large number of genes compared to other GST classes which are amongst the most stress-inducible. The corresponding proteins have been extensively studied in crops with regard to their detoxification activities toward herbicides. However, with a few exceptions, very little is known about their roles in planta and it is not well understood why this class has expanded. By combining molecular, cellular, biochemical and structural approaches, the eight isoforms from the model tree Populus trichocarpa have been characterized during this PhD project. Phylogenetic analysis of GSTFs in the green lineage shows that the apparition of this class is concomitant with the appearance of terrestrial plants and that different groups can be distinguished based on the active site signature. RT-PCR analysis of the eight isoforms of GSTFs showed that transcripts mostly accumulate in female flowers, petioles and fruits. Some aspects of the reaction mechanism have been characterized by determining kinetic parameters of the eight poplar GSTFs and of several mutated variants for key residues towards model substrates. The structures of five GSTFs have been solved and these dimeric proteins display a typical GST fold but specificities have been observed at the catalytic site level. Moreover, considering the demonstrated capacity of GSTF orthologs to bind hormones, anthocyanins or flavonoids, and the consistent high expression of poplar GSTFs in female flowers and fruits, two organs rich in these molecules, we speculate that they may also possess ligandin properties. Preliminary results have been obtained regarding the nature of the substrates in various poplar organs by analyzing protein thermostability in the presence of putative ligands. In order to assess whether a functional redundancy between poplar Phi GSTs exists and to identify their mode of action (catalytic vs ligandin functions), we started to isolate and identify physiological substrates
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Henri Pégeot. Étude des gluthation transférases de la classe Phi du peuplier (Populus trichocarpa) : caractérisation structurale, enzymatique et recherche de molécules cibles. Sylviculture, foresterie. Université de Lorraine, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015LORR0242⟩. ⟨tel-01754506⟩

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