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Quantification du métabolisme glycolytique cérébral en imagerie TEP au 18F-FDG : caractérisation de l’impact du vieillissement et de sa composante accélérée d’origine vasculaire

Abstract : 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG PET) is a brain-imaging technique allowing brain glycolytic metabolism to be quantified. The aim of this doctoral thesis work was to try to better characterize the aging-related changes in brain metabolism, including the part with a possible vascular origin, thanks to a three-dimensional voxel-based quantitative analysis of 18F-FDG PET images. Our work shows firstly that there is a clear advantage to use a particular spatial normalization software (BM: Block Matching) for the brain quantitative analysis, at least for the providing of templates adapted to each study population. This advantage was shown, initially, for the localization of temporal epileptic foci and thereafter, for quantifying the age-related changes in brain metabolism (enhanced determination of the involved brain areas). With this method, a decrease in brain metabolism could be documented throughout the life especially within certain frontal areas. In addition, we tried to determine the component of cerebral aging, which might be of a vascular origin and thus, susceptible to be treated or prevented by vascular treatments. In this research field, we have shown that microvascular abnormalities, setting within white-matter and called leukoaraiosis, were associated with a decrease in the grey-matter metabolism, in particular within certain frontal areas. This effect was independent of the inherent effect of age and of cortical atrophy. Finally, in a population of older patients with a high prevalence of hypertension, we showed that the blood pressure level was correlated to a brain metabolic remodeling, especially when this pressure was measured at central level and when considering the pulse pressure and a threshold value of 50 mmHg. The global cerebral aging and its acceleration in relation to vascular factors may be assessed by 18F-FDG PET when using an adapted voxel-based quantitative method. This assessment could potentially be useful for the monitoring of vascular treatments and for differentiating the aging- and vascular-related metabolic changes to those corresponding to brain diseases of other origins.
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Antoine Verger. Quantification du métabolisme glycolytique cérébral en imagerie TEP au 18F-FDG : caractérisation de l’impact du vieillissement et de sa composante accélérée d’origine vasculaire. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université de Lorraine, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015LORR0274⟩. ⟨tel-01754570⟩

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