Nanoparticules multifonctionnelles excitables par les rayons X pour la thérapie photodynamique

Abstract : PDT or photodynamic therapy is a method mainly used against cancer. PDT is based on the activation by light of photosensitive molecules, called photosensitizers, non-toxic in the dark. After excitation by light in the presence of oxygen, the photosensitizers generate reactive oxygen species including singlet oxygen, which lead to photo-oxidation reactions and cell death. This method is clinically applied in France and in several countries of the world but still has some limitations such as the low depth of light penetration in tissues. It therefore can be applied only to surface tumors such as actinic keratoses and small tumors accessible to laser light. To treat deep tumors by PDT, we propose an innovative strategy based on the use of X-rays known for their penetrating power. Since most photosensitizers are not radiosensitive, they cannot be excited by X-rays. Recent advances in nanotechnology have led us to consider a novel therapeutic strategy that can combine both the principles of PDT and radiotherapy through the development of scintillator containing nanoparticles excitable by X-rays. The concept is to use the scintillator included in the nanoparticle’s core which, excited by X-rays, can emit photons, which, in turn, can be re-absorbed by the photosensitizer itself conjugated to the nanoparticles. It is in this context that we developed nanoparticles of Gd2O2S:Eu3+, with in their core gadolinium (which is a MRI positive enhancement agent) doped with europium or terbium (for RX absorption) and coupled with photosensitizers (porphyrin, zinc chlorin and zinc phthalocyanine). We have developed a synthesis protocol for obtaining the porphyrin in good yields while limiting the time of synthesis and purification steps. The syntheses and purifications of nanoparticles were optimized. The physicochemical and photophysical characterization of the nanoparticles were performed, in particular their ability to produce singlet oxygen. Other Tb2O3 nanoparticles of smaller size, coated with a polysiloxane layer coupled to porphyrin have also been synthesized and studied. These nanoparticles offer both an opportunity for radiotherapy effect of PDT effect, while providing the ability to be detected by MRI. The efficiency of energy transfer between the nanoparticles and the photosensitizers in order to obtain a PDT effects was assessed and preliminary tests under X-ray excitation were undertaken
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Rima Chouikrat. Nanoparticules multifonctionnelles excitables par les rayons X pour la thérapie photodynamique. Autre. Université de Lorraine, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015LORR0294⟩. ⟨tel-01754588⟩

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