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Décryptage des mécanismes de régulation de l’épissage de l’exon 5 du pré-ARNm de la troponine T cardiaque : étude du rôle de l’épissage alternatif des pré-ARNm dans la réponse des cellules de vertébrés au stress oxydant

Abstract : Myotonic distrophy of type 1 (DM1) is a genetic disease characterized by skeletal muscle degeneration associated to myotonia. DM1 results from the instable expansion of CTG repeats within the 3’ untranslated region of the DMPK gene. The accumulation of mutated DMPK mRNAs within nuclear foci leads to the sequestration of the MBNL1 splicing factor and causes splicing misregulation of numerous pre-mRNAs. Among altered events the increase of the inclusion of exon 5 in the human cardiac troponin T (hcTNT) mRNA is of particular importance, since it contributes to the cardiac symptoms presented by the patients. Through collaborative work with N. Sergeant’s team from Lille, the team has studied the molecular bases of hcTNT exon 5 inclusion regulation and mapped 8 MBNL1 binding sites, including 6 new ones, within intronic regions surrounding exon 5. They also identified positive and negative splicing regulatory elements of which protein partners remain unidentified. The first objective of my PhD thesis was to test the functional importance of each individual MBNL1 binding site. The obtained results established that the 6 newly identified MBNL1 binding sites are involved in splicing regulation by MBNL1 and lead us to propose a new regulation model in which MBNL1 binds on triplets of MBNL1 sites present on each side of exon 5 and form a long distance structure via MBNL1-MBNL1 protein interaction. The formation of this looping-structure is expected to isolate exon 5 and limit its recognition by the spliceosome. In addition I searched for protein partners of the identified regulatory elements by affinity chromatography. By this way, I identified hnRNP H as a positive regulator of exon 5 inclusion. Its capacity to compete with MBNL1 to regulate splicing in cellulo by binding on exonic and intronic binding sites was further confirmed. The second part of my PhD work corresponds to the study of the global impact of oxidative stress, generated by exposition of HeLa cells to 500 µM of H2O2, on alternative splicing. This allows us to establish that the response of HeLa cells to oxidative stress involve two distincts phases: an early one (1h-8h) characterized by poor survival rate and high intracellular ROS content and a late phase (16-24h), associated with a decrease of the intracellular ROS level and the overexpression of the long non coding sat III RNAs. Based on this observation, we performed a transcriptome global analysis by using exon arrays from Affymetrix on RNA samples isolated 1, 2, 4 or 24 hours after the induction of the oxidative stress. We identified changes of the gene expression level or mRNA splicing pattern specific of each of the response phases. Data computing by bio-informatic tools identified the most affected cellular processes and functions during the cell response to oxidative stress. In order to better understand the mechanisms underlying alternative splicing modulation during oxidative stress, I started to study the impact of oxidative stress on the expression level and the cellular localization of spliceosome components and most common splicing regulation factors
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  • HAL Id : tel-01754594, version 1

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Jean-Vincent Philippe. Décryptage des mécanismes de régulation de l’épissage de l’exon 5 du pré-ARNm de la troponine T cardiaque : étude du rôle de l’épissage alternatif des pré-ARNm dans la réponse des cellules de vertébrés au stress oxydant. Biochimie, Biologie Moléculaire. Université de Lorraine, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015LORR0298⟩. ⟨tel-01754594⟩

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