Impact de la fonctionnalisation enzymatique de la pectine par des composés phénoliques sur la structure et les propriétés physicochimiques du polymère

Abstract : This dissertation concerns the functionalization of the citrus pectin with phenolic compounds. A first strategy consisted in grafting the products issued from the oxidation of ferulic acid (FA), in aqueous medium (pH 7,5, 30 ° C), in the presence of the laccase of Myceliophthora thermophila (pectin F). The main objectives were to demonstrate the covalent grafting of exogenous phenols onto the polysaccharide, to collect information about the structure and the properties of the modified polymer and to compare them with the characteristics of the native one. A second strategy of functionalization was applied, based on the adsorption of FA oxidation products onto the pectin (pectin POX). Whatever the functionalization pathway, biochemical analyses showed the incorporation of phenolic compounds into the pectin. The structure and the properties of the modified pectins depended on the type of modification undergone by the polysaccharide (covalent grafting or adsorption). Structural analyses suggested that the covalent grafting of phenols involved the carboxyl groups of the pectin (ester bound) on which FA oligomers were bound. The properties of native and modified pectins (POX and F) were studied and compared aiming to highlight the changes brought by functionalization. The study of the thermal properties of pectin POX and F suggested less organized and less compact structures compared to the native one. The antioxidant activity of the modified pectins was improved whereas their hygroscopic character was decreased because of the incorporation of hydrophobic phenolic compounds. As the native pectin, the pectins POX and F presented a shear-thinning profile. However, the viscosity and the gelation rate measured for the pectin F were significantly decreased, compared with those obtained for the native pectin. The pectin POX presented an intermediate behavior. Preliminary results of assemblies demonstrated the possibility to associate the native or modified pectin to another polysaccharide, the chitosan, leading to microparticles capable to encapsulate an active ingredient such as the curcumin
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Nadine Karaki. Impact de la fonctionnalisation enzymatique de la pectine par des composés phénoliques sur la structure et les propriétés physicochimiques du polymère. Alimentation et Nutrition. Université de Lorraine, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015LORR0205⟩. ⟨tel-01754620⟩

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