L'offrande et le tribut : la représentation de la fiscalité en Judée hellénistique et romaine (200 av. J.-C. – 135 apr. J.-C.)

Abstract : Taxes are important matters for understanding relations of power in Hellenistic and Roman Judaea, not only because of its economic burden, but above all because of its ideological sides: to tax a population means to pretend being its master. In Judaea, a first look to the sources let believe that many saw with a bad eye the foreign tribute, while the temple of Jerusalem exacted some revenues supposed to return to God, the sole proper master of Israel. However, a close examination proves the polemical sides of such a declaration: this dialectical opposition between the revenues of the shrine and the ones returning to foreigners is an ideological construction, whose purpose is to furnish a legitimation to the political opposition. Appeared at the time of the Maccabean uprising and used for theologically founding the war, this rhetorical instrument is visible, with some variations, in each protest movement until Bar Kokhba. But the sources hide some indications that let see that not everyone shared this view, and that, in the facts, the “offering” is not more cheerfully paid that the “tribute”. The purpose of the present dissertation is to underline the social, economical, financial and political implications of this representational construction, since the conquest of Judaea by Antiochos III, until the disappearance of the Judaea in 135 C.E.
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Theses
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http://docnum.univ-lorraine.fr/ulprive/DDOC_T_2017_0302_GIRARDIN.pdf
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https://hal.univ-lorraine.fr/tel-01765217
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Submitted on : Thursday, April 12, 2018 - 4:25:33 PM
Last modification on : Thursday, January 24, 2019 - 9:21:01 AM

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Michaël Girardin. L'offrande et le tribut : la représentation de la fiscalité en Judée hellénistique et romaine (200 av. J.-C. – 135 apr. J.-C.). Histoire. Université de Lorraine, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017LORR0302⟩. ⟨tel-01765217⟩

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