Caractérisation et comportement de lignites activés vis-à-vis de l'adsorption de Composés Organiques Volatils

Abstract : The main objective of this work presented in this thesis is to bring a contribution to the resolution of significant problems of air pollution generated by industrial activities. More particularly, our study is targeted on the adsorption of Volatile Organic Compounds (V.O.C.) (Methanol (MET/Dicholoromethane (DCM) ? Methyl Ethyl Ketone (MEC)/Dicholoroethane (DCE) on active carbon (A.C). Several steps were laid down through this search : - the preparation of the active carbons starting from a lignite, which was successively nitrogen enriched by condensation with urea, carbonized and activated under steam at 800°C at variable burn off ratio. - the complete characterization of the samples was made by various methods : XPS, IR, porosity, elemental analysis. - the determination of the adsorption isotherms of several V.O.C. on these A.C. Indeed, the introduction of nitrogen on low-rank coals will confer different adsorptive properties of these materials. These properties were evaluated via the adsorption isotherms which provide many information on the behavior towards the V.O.C., with the possibility of a comparative classification. - application of a mathematical model : L.S.E.R. (Linear Solvation Energy Relationship) in a double objective: characterization of the molecular interactions involved between V.O.C. and A.C; prediction of the selective capacity of the different A.C with respect to both selected pairs of V.O.C. (MET/DCM ? MEC/DCE). Finally a significant criterion is the selected ability of the samples in the aim of a separation, even of a valorization of the recovered pollutants. It was found that these active lignites have capacities of adsorption higher than the one of a commercial A.C (CECA). More particularly they are strongly selective towards the pair of MET/DCM and can also separate MEC/DCE under certain optimized experimental conditions. The characteristics like the chemistry of surface, the type of interactions as well as the porosity seemed significant to know
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Peggy Fydrych. Caractérisation et comportement de lignites activés vis-à-vis de l'adsorption de Composés Organiques Volatils. Chimie analytique. Université Paul Verlaine - Metz, 2001. Français. ⟨NNT : 2001METZ009S⟩. ⟨tel-01775456⟩

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