Toxicité comportementale et physiologique (filtration, respiration) des métaux lourds (Cu, Zn, Hg, Cd et Pb) chez la moule d'eau douce Dreissena polymorpha pallas : proposition d'un protocole d'essai pour l'évaluation de la toxicité par la réponse comportementale de Dreissena

Abstract : The study deals with the effetcts of subletal concentrations of heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Hg, Cd, Pb) on the pumping behaviour and physiological functions (filtration rate, oxygen consumption) of the freshwater mussel Dreissena polymorpha. A preliminary study, carried out to screen the letal effects, showed that the LC 50-96 h is 0,191mg/l for Cu, 0,420 mg/l for Hg and above 14 mg/l for Cd. Zn has no letal effect in a 96 h exposure. In a 24h exposure, subletal concentrations of metals induce deep changes in the pumping activity of Dreissena. Pumping flow becomes intermittence and valve closure in enhanced. The effects are concentration dependent. Metals can be classified in a decreasing order of toxicity as following : Hg, Cu, Cd, Pb, Zn. In view of its good sensitivity, the behavioural response of Dreissena is proposed as a tool for the screening of toxicity in freshwaters. The detection limits set for metals are (in mg/l) : 0, 010 for Hg, 0,015 for Cu, 0,100 for Cd, 0,200 for Zn and 0,400 for Pb. In exposures of 48 h and 1 week, metals significantly reduce the filtration rate of Dreissena. Order of toxicity is the same as for behaviour. The oxygen consumption study showed that it is increased by Zn and reduced by Cu and Hg. No effect was obtained with Cd and Pb. Integration of the physiological effects was undertaken for Cd (0,005 to 0,045 mg/l) and Cu (0,004 to 0,044 mg/l) in a 4 weeks exposure. Results show that the Scope for Growth in not impaired by Cd whereas Cu reduces it. The usefulness of the studied physiological functions as criteria for the chronic toxicity testing is discussed
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Abdelfattah Mouabad. Toxicité comportementale et physiologique (filtration, respiration) des métaux lourds (Cu, Zn, Hg, Cd et Pb) chez la moule d'eau douce Dreissena polymorpha pallas : proposition d'un protocole d'essai pour l'évaluation de la toxicité par la réponse comportementale de Dreissena. Ecotoxicologie. Université Paul Verlaine - Metz, 1991. Français. ⟨NNT : 1991METZ008S⟩. ⟨tel-01775931⟩

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