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Paléolacs plio-quaternaires et leurs couvertures sédimentaires récentes (Souss Central, Maroc)

Abstract : The middle part of the Souss plain, on both sides the eponymic main stream, is characterized by the existence of large evident sedimentary structures in the global morphology which are the large atlasic and anti-atlasic alluvial fans, the alluvial terraces and fields of dunes which reinstall in occasion of long drought. Except these sedimentary structures, the detection of a lakeside system remains rather difficult. The indicators of the existence of palaeolakes or palaeoplayas limit themselves to the planar aspect of certain parts of the Souss plain, to the conservation or not of the Argan forest, but especially in the existence of calcareous benches at the base the oued's left bank. The Souss lain was commanded by a tectonic activity bounded to the recurrent faulting of inherited faults, as weil in the basin as in the plain, and in a subsidence which probably continues. Two generations at least of Plio-Villafranchian palaeolakes were established within the depression. Their summit was covered by the deposits of terraces of the oued Souss, by the deposits of the High atlasic's and the Anti-atlasic's alluvial fans distal deposits and by dune fields. The wet limate in regular precipitations which reigned over the Souss plain during the Plio-Villafranchian left place to a succession of paleoclimates responsible of major notches and construction of new generations of alluvial fans on High-atlsic's and Anti-atlasic's piedmonts; the Anti-atlasic's piedmonts were drier and have allowed the installation of dunes. More wet and more dry phases altemate undoubtless during aIl the Quaternary. The unique phases identified here are situated within the "Tardi-Soltanian" and the Upper Holocene. The last phase of increasing aridity settled down since the Upper Holocene until the Current, and was interrupted by wetter episodes. The anthropological action has stressed many aridification aspects: prolonged oued drying, gulliying, fall of phreatic water-table. The Souss epression which saw lakes developing over more than 1000 km2 during PlioVillafranchian and which was yesterday even the larder of the Saâdians (sugar cane culture) offers today sorne land drought aspects.
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Submitted on : Tuesday, April 24, 2018 - 3:52:40 PM
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Souad Tannouch Bennani. Paléolacs plio-quaternaires et leurs couvertures sédimentaires récentes (Souss Central, Maroc). Géographie. Université Nancy 2, 2003. Français. ⟨NNT : 2003NAN21024⟩. ⟨tel-01776142⟩



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