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Les maisons fortes en Bourgogne du Nord du XIIIe au XVIe s. : approche archéologique et socio-historique

Abstract : This archaeological and historical study attempts to renew the sociological approach to study of village aristocracy by studying fortified dwellings, and in particular fortified manors. The study begins by an inventory of all of the medieval fortresses in the French Burgundian Côte d'Or region attested to by archive texts or archaeological remains, all-in-all 640 sites. This inventory, presented in the form of monographs which can be consulted on CD-Rom, gives the opportunity to study the evolution of these sites, the site patterns and the architectural elements. The study of the archive texts reveals the standing of the inhabitants. In the XIIIth, the builders of these fortified dwellings are sometimes milites castri but more often than not the youngest sons of lords of the manor, or non-tenant lords (seigneurs alleutiers). Theoretically they should hold their fortified dwelling by grant of the lord-high-justice, but in practice the fortified dwelling often escapes all control. The lords of each village take advantage of the war and the change in dynastie of 1360 in order to fortify their homes and to free themselves from control of the justiciary. The dukes attempt to enforce recognition of their preeminence in the granting of licence to crenellate and feudal duties, but their power will only become real from the XVth century. The emplacement of the fortified dwelling in relation to the village illustrates the role of the local lord and its evolution. In the XIIIth the dwelling is built close by and looking onto the village. From the XIVth onwards the dwelling is built further from the village and looking towards the south or the east. At the same time, the lords become less present in their rural homes. After the war, they reorganise their holdings and entrust them to managers. Lordship is no longer a contract of mutual assistance between a village community and its defender ; it becomes a simple structure of income from taxes.
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Submitted on : Tuesday, April 24, 2018 - 3:55:59 PM
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  • HAL Id : tel-01776269, version 1



Hervé Mouillebouche. Les maisons fortes en Bourgogne du Nord du XIIIe au XVIe s. : approche archéologique et socio-historique. Histoire. Université Nancy 2, 2000. Français. ⟨NNT : 2000NAN21020⟩. ⟨tel-01776269⟩



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