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Intérêt de l'application de tests alternatifs en écotoxicologie : cas des hépatocytes primaires de truite arc-en-ciel (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

Abstract : Control of point source pollution requires chemical characterization and toxicological assessment because it has the potential to contaminate and impact the aquatic biota. Toxicity of industrial effluents is evaluated, in part, by means of a standard 96 hh static bioassay using rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). A trout hepatocyte model has been developped as an alternative assay to the trout assay. This would reduce the number of fishes in these studies and may further underline some of the mechanism(s) of toxicity. With this model, cytotoxicity, along with metallothionein (MT), cytochrome P4501A1 (EROD) inductions, and DNA damage, can be estimated in effluent-exposed hepatocytes after 48h. Similarly, these effects were also followed in the liver of effluent-exposed trouts where mortality was studied in relation to cytotoxicity. The results showed that the cell system is more sensitive than the fish bioassay. The effects measured with the cell system proved to be significantly correlated with those obtained with the trout bioassay. The hepatocyte model can be used in a sequential approach so as to minimize test fish numbers and cost while increasing the toxicological information generated for effluents. This added information should be useful toward prevention of toxicity because it relates to effects that are precursors of toxic expression
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François Gagné. Intérêt de l'application de tests alternatifs en écotoxicologie : cas des hépatocytes primaires de truite arc-en-ciel (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Ecotoxicologie. Université Paul Verlaine - Metz, 1996. Français. ⟨NNT : 1996METZ007S⟩. ⟨tel-01777109⟩

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