Le développement précoce des poissons en écotoxicologie : exemple : la carpe commune (Cyprinus carpiol L.) : importance des facteurs environnementaux et de leurs interactions, diversification des critères de toxicité

Abstract : The study of a selected sample of the past ten years literature points out the relatively reduced part of toxicological practises stemmed from researches on fish early life stages. By evolving the carp embryo-larval model (Cyprinus carpio L), the thesis tries to explore the possibilities of multicriteria and multifactorial toxicological methods. Variuous experimental conditions are tested, especially the ovocytes in vivo preservation, the oxygenation of incubation mediums and the use of hydrophilic vessel walls for the exposure to hydrophobic substances. Different criteria of toxic effects are studied, particularly the total strength influence on survival, mobility and growth of reference solutions and the shape of survival and mobility graphs according to time. A critical of egg-layings quality criteria is realized. Beside classical criteria like survival and growth, other criteria are tested on different molecules and effluents, such as larval mobility, eggs cleavage rythm, hatching and respiratory activity. They are reveal themselves as being sensitive criteria of toxicity and of easy use. The unidimensional pattern of total larval proteins are subordinated to incubation temperature. In the presence of xenobitics non effect has been disclosed in a reliable way. Immunological assays suggest the presence in larvae the antigens crossing with anti universal stress protein antibodies of Escherichia coli. In the field embryo-larval tolerance : pH 6.9 to 9.0, calcium superior to 1.10(-4) to 1.10(-2) M and humic acids inferior to 500 mg/l, captafol, deltamethrin and DNOC toxicity may vary with a factor superior to 8. This modification could be explained by damage or changes in molecules structure (conformation) and bioavailability, and in embryos and larvae specific receptivity. The bioavailability is modified both by larvae presence and by the nature of solid substrates in touch with solutions
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François Ghillebaert. Le développement précoce des poissons en écotoxicologie : exemple : la carpe commune (Cyprinus carpiol L.) : importance des facteurs environnementaux et de leurs interactions, diversification des critères de toxicité. Sciences agricoles. Université Paul Verlaine - Metz, 1996. Français. ⟨NNT : 1996METZ011S⟩. ⟨tel-01777115⟩

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