Etude des mécanismes de la pyrolyse flash et de la pyrolyse laser par spectrométrie de masse : application aux polymères synthétiques et naturels

Abstract : The purpose of this work is to compare the flash pyrolysis and the laser ablation/pyrolysis, connected to the gaz chromatography/mass spectrometry (gc/ms). The final aim is to microcharacterize synthetic and natural polymers such as hairs and fibers. After the explanation of the principles and the mechanisms of the thermal pyrolysis, we describe the apparatus involved in this work, in particular pyrolysis ovens, laser pyrolysis device and connections with gc/ms. In order to compare different pyrolysis modes, experimental results are displayed in two manners : characterization of the volatile molecules formed during pyrolysis and the compared study of the different mechanisms occuring in the three pyrolysis methods. First, two synthetic polymers were studied by flash pyrolysis ; the relative proportions of each monomer have been determined. From the results with the organic acids (MALDI), we draw the role of the decarboxilation and of the vaporization of the intact molecule as a function of the wavelength used. The same approach has been made concerning the amino-acids constituting human hair. Then, we have been in order to separate the thermal effects of the laser irradiation from laser desorption. Finally, we applied the three pyrolysis modes to human hair. Comparing the results with the amino-acids and polypeptides analysed in the same conditions, we characterized the pyrolysates from human hair. We identified the mechanisms involved in the breaking of the peptidic chain. For the first time, the laser ablation of a human hair been attempted
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Sandrine Peter. Etude des mécanismes de la pyrolyse flash et de la pyrolyse laser par spectrométrie de masse : application aux polymères synthétiques et naturels. Autre. Université Paul Verlaine - Metz, 1996. Français. ⟨NNT : 1996METZ038S⟩. ⟨tel-01777147⟩

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