Les premiers éléments du monisme de Ernst Haeckel ou la genèse d'une philosophie opportune

Abstract : Ernst Haeckel (1834-1919), German zoologist, was the first major popularizer of Darwinism in Germany or more precisely of a monistic-materialistic evolutionism founded on some of the latest progress made in the natural sciences and which he exposed for the first time in his book : Generelle Morphologie der Organismen (1866). Neither materialistic nor idealistic, believing matter and spirit are inseparable, Haeckel s philosophy, which he called monism was based on the fundamental unity of organic and inorganic nature. It aimed at reforming morphology and above all at substituting itself for the Christian world's vision while rejecting the old metaphysical dogmas "theism, free will and immortality" and giving rational support to "the true, the good and the beautiful". His hard determinism, his mechanism, his complete rejection of the supernatural all inclined his contemporaries to classify him as a materialist. From 1868 to the end of his life, he never tired of popularizing his philosophical system in a way that became extremely polemical. His dislike of the power of the church in social and political matters and his liberal opposition to political figures resulted in many controversies. On the other hand, during his entire life, he rejected the accusation of materialism as well as of idealism. Why did he object ? Monism is known to be a very ancient philosophy. Why did Haeckel choose to update it precisely at this point in his life ? Did he have political ambitions ? A positivistic approach taking into account his biography and the political and social context is meant to understand and give answers to these questions.
Mots-clés : Monisme
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Sylvie Christine Dauriach. Les premiers éléments du monisme de Ernst Haeckel ou la genèse d'une philosophie opportune. Philosophie. Université Paul Verlaine - Metz, 2006. Français. ⟨NNT : 2006METZ020L⟩. ⟨tel-01777248⟩

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