Cellulose valorization in biorefinery : synergies between thermochemical and biological processes

Abstract : Because fossil resources are exhaustible by definition, the carbon needed for energy and materials production could be obtained from lignocellulosic biomass. Fermentation processes are able to provide a wide variety of interesting products that can replace the crude oil based "building blocks". However, the abundance of lignocellulosic biomass in the environment contrasts with its very low bioavailability. Indeed, because of (i) its insoluble nature, (ii) its more or less crystalline structure and (iii) the nature of the bonds between the polymer fibers, cellulose is a carbon substrate difficult to valorize by biochemical/fermentation processes alone. Fast pyrolysis or liquefaction of cellulose are mainly studied to produce a bio-oil, which would be upgraded by catalytic hydrotreatment into fuels or building blocks. In the current state of the art, studies at the interface of these two fields involving a biochemical or microbiological conversion of these bio-oils are still rare. The aim of this thesis is the coupling of a thermochemical conversion process of cellulose, to depolymerize it, to a microbial transformation process to produce solvents, acids and gases (butanol, ethanol, acetone, acetic acid, butyric acid, lactic acid, hydrogen) that are of great interest for the fuel or green chemistry industry. To do this, beech wood was fractionated by organosolv and chlorite / acid (SC / AA) methods in order to recover a cellulose-rich pulp. Hydrothermal liquefaction and fast pyrolysis processes were used to obtain sugars that were transformed into building blocks by fermentation. Many analytical methods have been developed for the characterization of products from each step of the process. Finally, a model of the process using the commercial software Aspen Plus® was developed to establish mass and energy balances of the integrated process including: the fractionation of the wood, then the liquefaction of the cellulosic fraction and the fermentation of bio-oils
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Buendia-Kandia Felipe. Cellulose valorization in biorefinery : synergies between thermochemical and biological processes. Chemical and Process Engineering. Université de Lorraine, 2018. English. ⟨NNT : 2018LORR0082⟩. ⟨tel-01920888⟩

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