Biomarqueurs transcriptomiques sanguins des maladies cardiovasculaires

Abstract : Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the main cause of mortality in the World and in Europe. Diagnosis and prediction of outcome of CVD currently rely on the use of protein biomarkers, but should be improved to optimize patient healthcare. Blood transcriptome contains all RNA molecules present in blood cells and in the acellular compartment. Among them, messenger RNA (mRNA) code for proteins whereas small non coding RNA, microRNA (miRNA), have a regulatory function by repressing the expression of their target genes. We hypothesized that blood transcriptome, mRNA and miRNA in particular, had a potential as biomarker, diagnostic or prognostic, in CVD. In a first study, we showed that endogenous heparin could lead to an inhibition of reverse transcription and quantitative PCR reaction used to measure miRNAs expressed in the blood, and that this parameter should be considered for studies on blood transcriptome. Secondly, we showed that 3 transcripts (coding for genes LMNB1, LTBP4, TGFBR1) expressed in whole blood, were independent predictors of cardiac function alteration at 4 months post-MI. Furthermore, the inclusion of these 3 transcripts in a prediction model containing clinical variables had an incremental predictive value. In a third study, we showed that circulating levels of miR-574-5p were able to discriminate patients with TAA from healthy controls. Furthermore, miR-574-5p was encapsulated in extracellular vesicles in the blood, suggesting a paracrine role. In the fourth and fifth studies, we showed that circulating levels of miR-122-5p were independent predictors of neurological outcome and survival at middle term post-CA, and were able to increase the prediction value of existing models. We also identified miR-574-5p as an independent predictor of neurological outcome post-CA, specifically in women. To conclude, this work allowed the discovery or the confirmation of the potential biomarker value of transcripts and miRNAs in different CVD. However, their biomarker value should be validated in other large scale studies and with other methods of measurement before foreseeing their clinical utilization
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Submitted on : Monday, January 14, 2019 - 4:31:30 PM
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Adeline Boileau. Biomarqueurs transcriptomiques sanguins des maladies cardiovasculaires. Cardiologie et système cardiovasculaire. Université de Lorraine, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018LORR0186⟩. ⟨tel-01980790⟩

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