Stratégies cellulaires et environnementales pour le développement d’un substitut osseux prévascularisé

Abstract : In case of critical-sized defects, the bone tissue ability of natural healing is not sufficient and needs to be assisted. The autologous bone graft is currently the gold standard. However, this solution has drawbacks that have led to the development of bone substitutes. Nowadays, no substitute is able to supply autogenous bone, due to the difficulties to mimic the vascular system. In recent years, the hopes are focusing on the creation of a prevascularized bone substitute to overcome the main limitation of current alternatives: the creation of a functional vascular network inside the substitute. Our project aims to evaluate the stimulating effect of a natural compound, the nacre extracts called Ethanol Soluble Matrix (ESM), both on the angiogenic abilities of endothelial cell lineage and on the osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to develop a pre-vascularized bone substitute. First, we showed that ESM stimulates the angiogenic potential of two types of endothelial cells: mature endothelial cells (HUVECs, human umbilical vein endothelial cells) and endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) from cord blood. The ESM, used at the concentration of 200µg/mL, exceeded results obtained with the reference culture medium of EPCs: the EGM-2 (Endothelial Growth Medium). Then, we demonstrated that ESM also exerted a stimulating effect on MSC by increasing the expression of chondrocyte and hypertrophic chondrocyte specific markers, suggesting an orientation of these cells towards endochondral ossification. In line with this work, we studied the paracrine effect of MSCs on endothelial cell lineage, HUVECs and EPCs. Nanoscale extracellular vesicles (nEVs) have been shown to induce an in vitro stimulation of the vascular network formation and of the endothelial gene expression. These encouraging results highlight the feasibility of using ESM as a stimulus for both angiogenesis of EPCs and osteogenesis of MSCs. This stimulus could be associated with MSC-derived nEVs and EPCs within a three-dimensional matrix to develop a pre-vascularized bone substitute
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https://hal.univ-lorraine.fr/tel-02006517
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Submitted on : Monday, February 4, 2019 - 4:22:39 PM
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Anne-Sophie Willemin. Stratégies cellulaires et environnementales pour le développement d’un substitut osseux prévascularisé. Ingénierie biomédicale. Université de Lorraine, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018LORR0191⟩. ⟨tel-02006517⟩

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