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Les films allemands en Moselle annexée par l’Allemagne nazie (1940-1945) : histoire d’un plaisir oublié

Abstract : This study describes the German film market in Moselle during the annexation of the department to Nazi Germany. It analyses the local politics of cinema put in place by the new authorities (part 1), the programming of films (part 2), their circulation and their consumption by the spectators (part 3). Focusing on an anthropological approach to the cinema, it attempts to question the effectiveness of the mechanisms of cultural hegemony that are not reduced to political manipulation, nor to the implicit presentation of a worldview. The focus is on pleasure as the driving force of aesthetic behaviour and the expression of a shared sensibility.From July 1940, the cinema is completely "Germanized": the organisation of the film industry is placed under the control of the NSDAP and the films (Deutsche Wochenschau, Kulturfilm and feature films) are all screened in German. However, the cinema remains the core activity of the annexation. Cinema attendance is significant, particularly because of the quality of films that were the best in Europe before the advent of Nazism. Market analysis also shows how few propaganda films, of the kind most readily associated with Nazi cinema were shown and that Germanic cultural entertainment focused predominantly on the most successful genres (such as musicals, melodramas, historical films) and on the reputation and beauty of famous celebrities (Viktor de Kowa, Marika Rökk, Viktor Staal, Viktor Rökk, etc.)The study of German films in annexed Moselle is essentially a study of the experience of the viewers, especially the youngest of them, whose memories we have been able to revive through oral surveys. The films are a way to have fun, of escaping a coercive and repressive daily life, and the social tensions inherent in society at the time. This appropriation of film is aimed at neutralising the more dangerous ideological ideas, and the profound attachment of viewers to the German cinema in general. The gratification continues because it is the subject of exchanges, discussions, sharing. However, the systematic assimilation of all these films to Nazi ideology made it impossible to show them after the fall of the Third Reich and the end of the Second World War.Deliberately conceived as an important tool in the Germanisation of the peoples of eastern France (who were expected to become fully-fledged Germans) and to be used as a propaganda tool for Nazi ideology and a cultural showcase for Germany in annexed Moselle, cinema was a free-spirited leisure activity. The popularity of German cinema is what allowed the authorities to politically manipulate leisure-time, moreover, it was made possible through cultural play or 'homo lumens' and by caring for oneself and the esteem of others. This paradoxical ambivalence is characteristic of a cultural hegemony
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  • HAL Id : tel-02055609, version 1



Anthony Rescigno. Les films allemands en Moselle annexée par l’Allemagne nazie (1940-1945) : histoire d’un plaisir oublié. Art et histoire de l'art. Université de Lorraine, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017LORR0368⟩. ⟨tel-02055609⟩



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