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La navigation urbaine des enfants-piétons : approche développementale et ergonomique

Abstract : Each year, lots of pedestrian children get injured by vehicles, in spite of efforts made to improve vehicles and safety infrastructures.These improvements have drastically reduced damages on casualties, though the study of pedestrian behaviour remains crucial since most collisions are caused by pedestrian behaviour themselves. In order to understand mental processes and behaviours involved during movement in an urban context, four types of studies dealing with pedestrian children behaviours were analysed : (1) studies about accident-prone circumstances and factors, (2) studies about most likely key-moment for accidents to occur, (3) studies about key competencies needed by pedestrians to move safely in urban traffic, and finally (4), most recent studies about the perception of risk. With the aim of having a comprehensive approach, attention was also drawn on mechanisms that could improve pedestrians' skills.Therefore, this thesis' goals are multiple. First, to define what a children would look at when moving across urban traffic. Second, to understand how behaviours toward the search for information vary. Finally, to measure inter- and intra-individual differences during the decision-making process of pedestrian children. The empirical approach of this thesis relies on three complementary studies, mixing both empirical and in-the-field approach. The first study involved 125 7-to-8 year old children, who were attenting a road-awareness-day. Children were asked to answer a question with a drawing. The purpose of this first study was to gather qualitative data about how pedestrian children perceive the urban environment. The second study was done on 62 attendees, including 21 adults and 41 3-to-11 year old children. The protocol consisted in showing attendees photographs, and asking them do decide to cross the street or not. The purpose of this second study was to collect eye-based and decision-making-time data, in order to highlight the link between visual exploration and decision-making process. The thirs study focused specifically on pedestrian children's decision-making process, using mental chronometry. An experimentation was led on 255 5-to-11 year old participants. The protocol was also about asking attendees to make a decision based on photographs; but this time with a varying informational density. All results of the studies mentioned above will be summarized in 3 main topics which are : pedestrians' inhibition mechanisms, information sources (including other people), and finally, training techniques aimed for pedestrian children
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Submitted on : Friday, March 8, 2019 - 9:53:14 AM
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Jordan Solt. La navigation urbaine des enfants-piétons : approche développementale et ergonomique. Sociologie. Université de Lorraine, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017LORR0398⟩. ⟨tel-02061397⟩



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