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Kant, philosophe français du XIXe siècle : entre science, philosophie et épistémologie

Abstract : Kantian studies can look at Kant’s body of work, as well as the way it was received and how it has contributed to the emergence of original philosophical reflections. This thesis examines the latter path, through the peculiar prism of circulation between science, philosophy and epistemology. The goal is therefore to show how scholars understood and used Kant. Ampère, Brunschvicg, Comte, Couturat, Gergonne, Lacroix, Léchalas, Littré, Milhaud, Poincaré, Renouvier, Rey, Ribot, Paul Tannery, Wronski and Wyrouboff are but a few examples of more or less renowned thinkers with a scientific education who used Kant. However, rather than offering a litany of studies dedicated to these scholars, this thesis follows the main circulation networks of pictures and uses of Kantianism all through the XIX century in France. From the Prussian Academy of Sciences to the Francophone reviews at the end of the century, references to Kant were being more and more institutionalized, which implied many interactions between science, philosophy and epistemology. However, Kant was notably used to acknowledge the importance of the subject’s activity in constituting knowledge and to raise the epistemological issue of correspondence between representations and reality. The concept of realism was then given a bit of a stretch. Several scholars seized Kantianism to build up original philosophical options, which rethought the connections and oppositions between empiricism, idealism and skepticism. For instance, a form of structural realism associated with a reflection on belief and probabilities appeared as soon as the beginning of the XIX century. It can be found, for example, under various forms in Ampère, Cournot or even Tannery. Moreover, Kantianism was used as a philosophical melting pot to think out the founding principles of sciences. Geometry and arithmetic were at the heart of the debates. It was especially the case at the end of the century, thanks to the rebirth of Non-Euclidian geometries and the development of links between mathematics and logic. However, these problematics had roots that were older and the matrices of Kant’s uses emerged as soon as the beginning of the century. Finally, it is not uncommon to observe that scholars used Kant to think out rational mechanics or even cosmology. As such, this study reports how references to Kant worked to think out these sciences. According to these perspectives, Kant is indeed an influential actor in epistemology and philosophy of science in the XIX century in France
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Submitted on : Thursday, January 13, 2022 - 3:14:54 PM
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Charles Braverman. Kant, philosophe français du XIXe siècle : entre science, philosophie et épistémologie. Philosophie. Université de Lorraine, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017LORR0399⟩. ⟨tel-02061682⟩



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