Étude des phénomènes de sorption de l’eau sur des aérosols solides émis lors d’un incendie : identification des paramètres physico-chimiques d’influence

Abstract : During a fire in a nuclear plan, the high efficiency particle air (HEPA) filters are clogged by a deposit (or “cake”) of soot, the latter corresponding to carbonaceous nanoparticles aggregates. The effect of humidity, observed on the filters by the presence of condensed water, is still not considered in the clogging models developed in scientific community. In this context, the aim of this study consists on a better understanding of the water sorption on the soot. The experimental approach was first the production of “analytical” soot with different isolated fuels and at different dioxygen concentrations, and of “fire” soot at large scale with different ventilations and complex elements (glove boxes, electrical cables, hydraulic oil). The physicochemical properties (morphology, porosity, specific surface area, elemental and chemical composition) and the water sorption isotherms, for samples at compacted pellet and powder state, have been determined. The parameters from the model of Dubinin-Serpinski, obtained for a first class of hydrophobic soot, enabled to propose a relevant model, characteristic of the analytical soot. Furthermore, water sorption isotherms on soot cake, coming from realistic fires and fuels, have been modeled with the D’Arcy and Watt (DW) equation. For this second class of hydrophilic soot, the DW parameters appear relatively more dispersed. This relative dispersion is due to the different properties of the fire soot and especially to the presence of high amounts of oxygen and halogens (chlorine, phosphor). This study enabled to highlight a more significant water adsorption on fire soot, leading to the capillary condensation, which is favored for soot compacted into pellet. Soot chemical a and elemental composition appeared to be the most influencing parameter on water sorption phenomenon.
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Laura Lintis. Étude des phénomènes de sorption de l’eau sur des aérosols solides émis lors d’un incendie : identification des paramètres physico-chimiques d’influence. Génie des procédés. Université de Lorraine, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018LORR0304⟩. ⟨tel-02130021⟩

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