Ergonomie théorique de l’humain-machine : quels fondements épistémologiques pour une conception sûre ?

Abstract : The safe design and controlled development of human(s)-machine(s) systems is a major challenge for society as a whole and, especially, in critical areas such as the military, aerospace and medical fields that are brought to evolve, thanks to the progress made by automation. At the same time, the techniques available to ensure the implementation of solutions that meet these needs are also constantly increasing with regard to their power dimensions, energy efficiency and miniaturization, which corresponds to the notion of convergence between Nanotechniques-Biotechniques-Informatics-Cognitive Sciences.All this makes necessary to have theoretical ergonomics, not in the sense sometimes understood of a detachment of the practice but in the sense of ergonomics based on a conceptual and formal framework making possible to render the methodologies and norms used through general principles intelligible.Thus, theoretical ergonomics are not a theory of ergonomics but a theory of anthropotechnics, which seeks to develop a methodology and a pragmatic epistemology, capable of providing the conceptual foundations for what exists today and to allow the future development of ergonomics as a scientific field. It is based on the central idea that at the base of any Human(s)-Machine(s) Interface occurs a particular interaction ; semiotic interaction.This particular interaction, specific to living beings, is at the basis of the integration between the individual and his environment. It is what allows it to act in the world, by producing meaning from sensible perception. By considering the human as an integrated biological system, in the sense of Chauvet, as a system whose behavior is the product of implicit couplings at different levels of structure, it is possible to found a postcognitive paradigm in general psychology. The peculiarity of this paradigm is that it makes possible to envisage the behavior of the individual from his biology and in a non-reductionist way.From the work of Chauvet and Fass, it is possible to establish a mathematical modeling of these biological phenomena, allowing to formalize the specifications of a technical system, based on the requirements related to human factors. Thanks to this conceptual framework, it is possible to analyze and reform some valuable tools for the ergonomist like the criterium of Bastien and Scapin for which we propose a generalization to all technical systems. The primary function of this criterology is to allow an interactive system to meet a fundamental set of requirements related to human factors. By generalizing and formalizing it, it becomes possible to envisage a modeling of the fundamental parameters of the semiotic interaction.This approach results in a design ontology, which aims to be a formal framework for modeling human(s)-machine(s) interactions. We propose an application to MIDAS, a human performance modeling tool developed by NASA. The purpose of this ontology is to allow the modeling of the interaction simultaneously to the modeling of the behavior of the user which makes it possible to highlight what are the hamartogenic parameters of a given hypothesis of conception.Thus, the use of design ontologies opens the way to the construction of formal models, correct by construction, of the human(s)-machine(s) interaction and its optimal conditions of implementation, allowing a more assured design of critical systems.
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Submitted on : Tuesday, May 28, 2019 - 3:41:34 PM
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Rémi Nazin. Ergonomie théorique de l’humain-machine : quels fondements épistémologiques pour une conception sûre ?. Sociologie. Université de Lorraine, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019LORR0012⟩. ⟨tel-02142411⟩

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