Autoconstructions médinale tunisoise actuelle et déconstructivime architectural : quelles ressemblances esthétiques ?

Abstract : Since the beginning of time, Tunisian autoconstructions of the medina had been brutally razed by the governement. The advent of the 2011 revolution revived the desire for their reappearances. The dynamiting them again aggravates the hemorrhage of their renewals. "Speculating", "valuing" them and looking at them differently instead of getting rid of them will open up new opportunities. In the present work, the comparative method between autoconstruction and Deconstructivism would certainly lead us to fruitful paths. The complexity, the chaos, the formal and bizarre geometry deployed by the architectural deconstruction and, from the outset, by the autoconstruction of the medina seem to us the first hypotheses. In these brief lines, we shall be content to develop other aspects. The problematic developed in the thesis is to take another look at the autoconstruction of the medina of Tunis, summoning the aesthetics of Deconstructivism to discuss it, even to enrich it, on the one hand, and on the other hand , to promote another approach to spontaneous housing in the city of Tunis that would be likely to provide another reading of the phenomenon of its emergence. One of the resemblances that combines autoconstruction with deconstruction is its ability to be deregulated. The result is totally bizarre spaces, distorted planes, unusual angles, broken lines, telescoped asymmetries, etc. The "idea" of deregulation of autoconstructions transgresses our habits of seeing architecture. More than deregulation, they seem "empty of rules" and remain completely non-academic, non-architectural and practically without qualified architects. Another resemblance between the (auto-) and (de-)construction lies in the "idea" of ruin. Witnesses general desertion, precariousness and suffering, autoconstructions embody the place of a chaotic defragmentation of architecture. Abandoned floors, unfinished posts, randomly overlapping facades, anarchically combined facades, completely or partly ruined buildings, etc ; all these frequent and current aesthetic aspects have strange resemblances to many deconstructivist achievements. A third resemblance resides in its incomplete appearance. Just by walking through the narrow streets of the medina, we come across sandy slopes, bags of cement, gravel, bricks, stones, corrugated sheets, wood waste, etc. The result is interminably open chantier. It also results in excessive use of precarious, urgent, essential building materials. Are the Tunisian autoconstructions of the medina in a "way of deconstruction"? Could they inspire deconstructivist architects ? Could we propose that Deconstructivism constitutes the best theoretical support that can enhance the aesthetic aspects of Tunisian autoconstructions ?
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Sami Kamoun. Autoconstructions médinale tunisoise actuelle et déconstructivime architectural : quelles ressemblances esthétiques ?. Histoire. Université de Lorraine; Université de Tunis, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018LORR0322⟩. ⟨tel-02166705⟩

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